Leishmaniasis associated to genital TVT in a dog

(case report)

Sofi SinadinovaDr. Sofiya Sinadinova

Blue Cross Veterinary clinic Blagoevgrad- Bulgaria

 

Introduction:

Canine transmissible venereal tumor(CTVT),also known as transmissible venereal tumor (TVT) or Stickers’s sarcoma, is a  transmissible cancer, that affects dogs. CTVT is spread by the transfer of living cancer cells between dogs, usually during mating. It’s normally localized at the external genitalia of male and female dogs, also at the oral and nasal cavities. Immuno-compromised and generally unhealthy dogs are predispose of leishmaniasis associated to genital TVT, and especially in a dogs living in Mediterranean region. CTVT  may also be transferred by licking, sniffing  or parturition. Clinically, CTVT lesions are red to tan, friable, verrucous to multilobulated masses, predominantly affecting genital organs, and are usually ulcerated and inflamed. Metastasis is uncommon ,but  is usually seen in regional lymphnodes. Other reported sites of metastasis include skin, subcutaneous, brain, eyes, spleen ,liver, musculature, lungs, anus, bones, kidneys ,testicles and  mammary glands.  Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne diseases with wide geographic distribution affecting humans, dogs and several wildlife species. Depending on the infecting Leishmania species and the immunocompetence of the host, the infection can result in visceral (CanVL), cutaneous or mucocutaneous disease.  CTVT and CanVL can overlap epidemiologically particularly in regard to their geographical distribution. In recent study was  found  that Leishmania sp.   has tropism for the canine male genital tract. CanVL has been previously identified concurrently with canine transmissible venereal tumor as well as Leishmania amastigotes within CTVT neoplastic cells.

Clinical case:

CASE REPORT-  A 10 yrs old mixed-breed female dog Lucky was presented in Blue Cross animal hospital  in Blagoevgrad on 01.04.2019 in a state of  prostration. The dog had been adopted from the street. On presentation Lucky was in a very bad body condition-cachectic  with pale mucosa membranes , muscle atrophy, onychogryphosis and two large cauliflower-like, ulcerated, hemorrhagic vaginal tumor masses. (Figure 1). The skin examination showed generalized alopecia with lice infestation and diffuse seborrhea. There wasn’t any lymphadenomegaly detected. Abdominal ultrasound examination didn’t show abnormalities in the spleen and other organs.

20190401_174353 20190401_174359

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

214

Fig 1

21 04

Fig 1

Clinical diagnostic tests:

A  complete blood(cell) count (CBC), serum biochemistry profile were performed along with a Snap 4Dx test to screen for vector borne disease agents  Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm disease),Erlichia canis (ehrlichiosis) ,Anaplasma phagocytophilium (anaplasmosis) and Borrelia burgdorferi (Lyme disease)  and test  for Leishmania detecting antibodies. In addition, skin scrape of the few places on the skin and  fine needle aspiration cytology of the vaginal mass was done. The CBC revealed anemia, haemoglobinemia, Leukocytosis (lymphocytosis, granulocytosis).The serum biochemistry profile revealed hyperglobulinemia, hypoalbuminemia, low A/G ratio, hypocalcemia. The dog was positive for E.canis, A.phagocytophilium and Leishmania Ab. The skin scrape was negative for demodicosis and scabies. A fine needle aspiration cytology   of the vaginal mass revealed a neoplastic  round and ovoid  cell population with some inflammatory cells. Every cell is containing single ,large and  round  nuclei. The abundant cytoplasm was delicately granular and optically empty. The cells had an characteristic for transmissible venereal  tumor (TVT).(Figure 2)

20190421_111215

Fig 2

 

Clinical evolution:

20190421_162549

Fig 3

Treatment with doxycycline 10mg/kg,p.o. q12h for 30 days for ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis was initiated. In addition Milteforan  2mg/kg,p.o. q24h  for 28 days and Allopurinol 20mg/kg,p.o.,q12h for 6 to 9 months was initiated for treatment of Laishmaniasis. The dog get   also every day, some supplement for the skin like omega 3 and omega 6 amino acids  and every 3th day topical treatment with shampoo with ketoconazole and chlorhexidine. The dog spent  20 days in the clinic, during that time Lucky get really improved (figure 3 ).

 

 

For the TVT treatment with vinciristine sulfate 0.6 mg/kg/m2, I.V., q7d for a total 8 treatments was initiated. The dog was monitored  with a CBC every week. Photographs of the vaginal tumors were taken at each follow up visit to monitor the progress. After the second vincristine treatment there was visible improvement. The mass had decreased in a size.(fig.4and 5)

first week

Fig 4-First week after vincristine treatment.

 

2 w

Fig 5-Second week after vincristine treatment.

3 w

Fig 5-3rd week after vincristine treatment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5w

fig 6

By the f ourth week only a small remnant of the mass was visible(fig6).

 

 

 

 

 

 

7w

Fig 7- 7th week of the treatment

 

During the all treatment there was no decreasing of the  thrombocytes, CBC was completely normal. There was no side effects  of the vincristine treatment.

 

 

 

Conclusions:

The patient was fully recovered. The treatment with Allopurinol is stopped. Sixed months after the last vincristine treatment, Lucky was doing great, no TVT recurrence. Neutering of affected dogs can be beneficial to decrease distribution  of the vaginal tumors.

 

8w (1) 8w (2)

 

References:

1.Dermatopatolvet.it

2.Case report Leishmania sp. Amastigotes Identification in CTVT

3.Transmissible Cancer  Group

Department of Veterinary Medicine

University of Cambridge

 

 

SECONDARY ALIMENTARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM and its complications – our approach

logoDepartments “Metabolic and endocrine disorders” and “Orthopedics” – veterinary clinics “Dobro Hrumvane”, Sofia, Bulgaria

The alimentary secondary hyperparathyroidism is not so rare as many specialists think. For period of only 9 months we diagnosed in our clinics 17 cases and had serious observations in other 9 cases (the owners didn’t agree to prove 100 % in Laboklin) in different stages of the problem evaluating. We present below our treatment protocol and two concrete complicated cases – both with healed patients but one not operated – and our consequences experience in cases with or without surgery.

The hyperparathyroidism is primary and secondary. The secondary could be renal – complication of chronic renal insufficiency, it is more often seen even in comparison to the primary – and alimentary: rarest but for sure not exotic. The alimentary variant is seen in young dogs and especially cats fed only or almost only with meat.  The low calcium levels and the inadequate calcium/phosphor ratio in meat starts a multi-vector pathological process evaluating for a couple of weeks to following clinical picture: unwilling for moving, lameness, stiff walking, spontaneous fractures, face edemas, easily teeth removing or teeth loosening, spontaneous neurological deficit  in different levels. The standard hematological and biochemical blood panels usually do not give any diagnose direction. It is common the right diagnose to be reached with delay because often the colleagues miss during the anamnestic phase to become well informed about the alimentary regime of the patient, X-rays are rarely made in the very beginning and usually the therapy starts with NSAIDS and general strengthening protocol.

This disease not rarely causes hind legs function insufficiency and neurological deficit, paradoxally not corresponding to and many times exceeding the found through imaging diagnostic bone (including vertebral) changes. It is not exotic OCD (even in cats) to be diagnosed later due to cartilage underlying bone and bone vessels malformation.

Most directing is the anamneses especially the alimentary regime of the young patient. Absolutely enough for 90 % sure diagnose is combination of anamneses, estimation of the bone geometry and density due to X-rays covering flat bones, spinal cord, mandibula, maxilla and blood levels of macro elements especially P. For 100 % sure diagnose we send blood hormon sample to Laboklin Germany. The differential diagnoses are not many and include some genetic or metabolic disorders.

Our newest therapeutic protocol, product of enough clinical experience and leading to fastest and completest healing includes:

  • Hospitalization of the patient in cage for maximal immobilization aiming to avoid pathological fractures and especially vertebral fractures.
  • Diet change to P-poor and Ca-rich: the variants are so many, ii is important the diet to be diverse and with enough vitamins. In most of the cases we start with renal diet combined with additional food components;
  • Calo-pet – zero P molecules and very adequate composition for this problem;
  • NEO-K9: not only because of the demonstrative bone healing stimulation but also very adequate against all cases of hyperphosphatemia – and in cases of alimentary hyperparathyroidism we have severe hyperphosphatemia as well as serious bone demineralization and decrease of their potential for resistance to physical forces and for healing;
  • Ipakitine – because of its ability to chelate and eliminate the phosphor
  • HyalOral – because of its adequate to the therapy (especially against intra-joints complications) composition and especially because of the gamma-oryzanol inside
  • NSAIDS – against pain and inflammation
  • Calciferol (Vitamin D3) in dosage 2 ng/kg/24h– please be very careful when using it because increases the resorption of calcium but also of phosphor. Should be added to the protocol only after the phosphor is already in normal blood levels or very close to them;
  • Sometimes after careful individual estimation – oral pure Ca human product for children or even injectable Ca vet product;
  • Often repeated biochemical including P and Ca blood monitoring (a big Thank you! to our trusted lab VetDiaLab for the precise and reliable work during the last 15 years), every-day neurological monitoring and checking the ability for urination, every-day check for rib and long bone fractures and regular (minimum every 8-10 days) X-ray follow-up of the geometry and healing of all fissures and fractures;
  • Therapy against the complications including the spontaneous fractures, eating difficulties because of jaw problems ets.

This algorithm leads to very fast and demonstrative health status improvement. Of course it is very important to estimate carefully when the patient is ready to get out of the cage. We recommend the bone fissues to be X-ray monitored every 5-10 days and all long-bone fractures to be operated especially those near the knee joints. The reason?: the long-bone fractures caused by SAHPT heal very often with malunion which is being well tolerated by young animals but many of them suffer when achieve adult/mature age. On the other hand we recommend vertebral fractures to be operated only in case of neurological deficit or pain. In all cases of eating difficulties esofageal probe and not manual assisted eating is recommendable.

Case 1: cat Darko, SAHPT complicated with two supracondylar femural fractures, operated with delay. We added Calciferol to the therapy protocol at the 7th day when the blood phosphor decreased to normal levels. The owners asked us not to operate and to wait but as usual despide the cage rest after a couple of days the fragments geometry get worse and the healing would lead to malunion and may be to patellar luxation. The owners agreed to operate, the surgeries with implants of Mikromed were fast and simple (peri-operatively: Clavaseptin) and the case result is 100% healthy and extremely mobil cat:

pic 1 pic 2 pic 3 pic 4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Case two: cat Pisi, SAHPT complicated with fissure and fracture, not operated. The X-ray fissure (left humerus) follow up showed no need to operate and healed without problems. Unfortunately we didn’t receive permission to operate the fracture and as usual the result is serious malunion:

pic 5 pic 6

 

Conclusion: strict cage rest, strict food and therapeutical protocol, strict clinical and paraclinical monitoring and careful surgery estimation = successful outcome.

Regulatory Convergence Key to Improve Access to Veterinary Medicines say Global Veterinary Associations

logo-white-backgroundArtboard-1Eleven global veterinary associations have signed a Position Statement calling for increased regulatory convergence and harmonization in order to ensure that veterinarians globally can access the medicines they need to treat their patients.  The Statement, initiated by the World Small Animal Veterinary Association (WSAVA), is the latest step in its campaign to secure more equal access to vital veterinary medicines for companion animal veterinarians around the world.

Restricted access to veterinary medicines because of regulatory issues in regions of the world including Eastern Europe, Africa and Asia, is a long-standing problem and limits the efforts of many veterinarians to provide optimal care to their patients.  Sometimes, even essential medicines, such as those required to properly manage pain, are difficult to access, causing immense and unnecessary suffering.

The WSAVA recently formed a Therapeutics Guidelines Group (TGG) to spearhead its work in this area and to campaign to ensure more open access to these medications.  Its new Position Statement is designed to raise awareness of the problems around regulation and to call on governments and regulatory bodies to act.  The Statement has been endorsed by:

It follows a 2018 Position Statement from the WSAVA outlining a range of factors which restrict global access to veterinary medicines and the significant impact on animal health and welfare this causes.  This statement also received wide support from the veterinary sector, including those associations listed above.

In a survey of its members conducted by the WSAVA during 2016-2017, 75% of respondents confirmed that that problems in accessing veterinary medical products hampered their ability to meet the needs of their patients and 20% assessed the impact of this issue as resulting in a severe restriction on their ability to provide a high level of care.  During its 2019 World Congress in Toronto, Canada, in July, the WSAVA’s Therapeutics Guidelines Group convened a summit meeting of global veterinary associations and stakeholders to discuss potential solutions.  The new Position Statement was one of the outputs from this meeting.

Dr Walt Ingwersen

Dr Walt Ingwersen

Commenting, Dr Walt Ingwersen, WSAVA Past President, said: “Difficulty in accessing therapeutics to treat patients is a critical issue for companion animal veterinarians in many parts of the world.  It causes huge frustration and means that many, if not most, companion animals globally do not receive optimum care.  It’s a situation which requires urgent change and, working in partnership with our colleagues across the veterinary sector, we are focused on bringing this about.

“While a number of issues impact the supply of veterinary medicines, duplication of the regulatory medicines approval process in various regions of the world is one of the biggest and the focus of our Joint Position Statement on Regulatory Convergence. The WSAVA Therapeutics Guidelines Group has been working hard on the issue of access to and availability of veterinary medicines and will shortly be announcing the first of a set of practical tools to support veterinarians and their associations to lobby their own governments and regulatory bodies.

“To support them, we, as a global veterinary community, will continue to demand change at a global level and our Position Statements are proving effective in increasing understanding and prompting action.”

He added: “We thank our colleagues in other veterinary associations for standing with us and we will continue to collaborate closely to ensure that all veterinarians have access to the drugs they need to treat their patients.”

The WSAVA represents more than 200,000 veterinarians worldwide through its 113 member associations and works to enhance standards of clinical care for companion animals.  Its core activities include the development of WSAVA Global Guidelines in key areas of veterinary practice and lobbying on important issues affecting companion animal care worldwide.

Histiocytic Ulcerative Colitis in French Bulldog

21034264_1857657530915739_9210069975642627612_nDr Mila Kisyova,

veterinary clinics “Dobro hrumvane!”- Sofia, Bulgaria

  1. Introduction

Histiocytic ulcerative colitis (HUC) is an inflammatory bowel disease that causes tenesmus, hematochezia, and profound weight loss. The disease is most commonly described in young Boxer Dogs but it has also been reported in other breeds of dogs, including Mastiff, Alaskan Malamute, Doberman Pinscher, French Bulldogs. One cat with HUC also has been described. HUC differs from other forms of inflammatory bowel disease in dogs because it is characterized histologically by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive macrophages; it is more likely to be associated with mucosal ulcerations; it is less responsive to therapy, and has a poorer long-term prognosis. HUC in Boxer Dogs was 1st described by Van Kruiningen et al in 1965. Since that time, the gross histopathologic and ultrastructural findings have been well characterized. The pathognomonic lesion of HUC is the accumulation of distinctive, PAS-positive macrophages (indicative of glycoprotein within the macrophages) in the lamina propria and submucosa of the colon with loss of the associated epithelial surface. The PAS-positive material may be derived from remnants of bacterial cell wall glycoprotein, and accumulation of PAS-positive material in macrophages may occur because of abnormal lysosomal activity, exhaustion of lysosomal activity, or inhibition of lysosomal activity by toxic substances. The cause of HUC has yet to be determined. Early studies proposed an infectious etiology on the basis of the presence of chlamydia-like organisms in macrophages on electron microscopy and clinical improvement after chloramphenicol therapy. In a subsequent ultrastructural study, organisms were not conclusively demonstrated. Attempts to create the disease experimentally by mycoplasma infection failed. Management of HUC consists of various combinations of the following: dietary modifications; antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, metronidazole, and tylosin and anti-inflammatory or immunosuppressive drugs such as sulfasalazine, prednisone,cyclosporine and azathioprine. Response to treatment is generally poor, frequently resulting in euthanasia of affected animals

pic 11

 

 

Representative histologic images in the dog (HE, bar = 50 μm). A: Lymphocytic-plasmacytic colitis. Note the interstitial diffuse pattern of infiltrate represented by a large amount of lymphocytes mixed with plasma cells and some macrophages; B: Lymphocytic-plasmacytic colitis (follicular variant); C: Histiocytic colitis. Severe mucosal abnormalities with loss of crypts and diffuse infiltration by large macrophages (arrows) that in the insert (PAS stain) are shown as the main cells infiltrating the lamina propria; D: Eosinophilic colitis. Note the presence of a large number of eosinophils (arrows).

pic 12

  1. Report and history of the patient

We had a patient dog, named Robin, French Bulldog, male, noncastrated, 2 years old, vaccinated, with chronic diarrhea dating back about a year and a half. Everything started with minor episodes of diarrhea when the dog was about 6-7 months old, the owners also mentioned itching and licking of paws. Аll tests for infectious diseases were negative (CPV/CCV/Giardia) and blood samples were normal. The faecal sample was negative for any parasites. At that time, the patient was treated with probiotics, chemotherapeutics and sulphonamides, gastrointestinal and hypoallergenic diets  without any effect. During this time, the owners refused colonoscopy or diagnostic laparotomy combined with a histopathological examination аnd a test for pancreatitis (Idexx cPL).

On April 12, 2019, the dog came to the clinic again with complaints of persistent diarrhea accompanied by blood and tennesms. Robin’s condition had become more serious since the owners had given BARF at their discretion. On the same day we did the CBC and biochemical blood tests and ultrasound of the abdomen. The ultrasound examination showed a high degree of thickening of the layers of the colon and some of the small intestine divisions, as well as enlarged mesenterial limph nodes.

pic 13pic 14

We placed an intravenous catheter and included fluid therapy NaCl 55 ml/h, antiemetics (famotidine and pantoprazole), vitamins (vit C, B- complex, arginine ,ornithine, citrulline), antioxidants (duphalyte, amynoplasmal), probiotics (Fortiflora and Pro-kolin paste), painkillers (buprenorphine), haemostatic drugs (Vit K1 and etamsylate)  and tylosinum  25 mg/kg/24h/p.o. Аfter 3 days we took blood tests, which again showed low-grade anemia, leukocytosis and neutrophilia. We also added injectable erythropoietin to therapy.

 

On April 16, 2019, we performed a diagnostic laparotomy with full thickness biopsy of thr large and small intestine. The material taken was prepared and sent for patho-histological examination in Laboklin Germany. The result was sent by email on May 24, 2019 :

Diagnosis:
1: moderate to severe mixed cell colitis with

PAS-positive macrophages and ulceration
2: mild to moderate lymphoplasmocytic enteritis
Critical report:
The histological findings (PAS-positive macrophages) in context with the reported breed indicated a histiocytic and ulcerative colitis(HUC).This form of colitis develops especially in

boxer dogs and french bulldogs. Single cases are described forother breeds.A HUC is associated with an infection of certain strains of Escherichia coli. Clinical signs are weight loss, anorexia andpoor condition.A colitis with epithelial lesions and PAS-positive macrophages are typically found in histology.“

pic 15

On the same day we started methilprednisolon 2 mg/kg/12h/i.v, ampicillin/sulbactam 15 mg/kg/8h/i.v, ceftriaxone 35 mg/kg/12h/i.v in addition to all other therapy.

On April 25, 2019 we only took complete blood count, which established increase of leukocytes and neutrophils, as well as deepening anemia. Clinically, the dog continued to have severe and watery diarrhea with tenesmus, most of which were mixed with blood. Robin began to lose weight progressively and refused to eat at his own will. He was fed by force, following a hypoallergenic diet of “Hill’s z/d cans” and “Royal Canin Hypoallergenic cans”. After a few days Robin felt better and started to eat dry hypoallergenic food.

On April 30, 2019 we took blood for a full blood count where the levels of leukocytes and neutrophils had dropped, but the levels of red blood cells were still low, so an ultrasound examination of the colon was carried out – the wall had begun to decrease in size

pic 16

Robin’s condition was beginning to improve, the stools were getting better. After a few days, the patient was given home therapy (amoxicillin/clavulanic acid for 5 weeks, marbofloxacin for 6 weeks, prednisolone by scheme with start dose 3 mg/kg/12h/p.o for 7 weeks, b-complex liquit, legaphyton 200 tabl).

On May 09 2019 we took blood for a full blood count – the leukocytosis were even fewer, but still out of norm; the hematocrit, the hemoglobin and the number of red blood cells were still low. We sent another blood sample to Laboklin Germany for TLI (Tripsin-like-immunoreactivity) + Vit B12 + Folic Acid.

“Trypsin-like-Immunoreactivity (TLi) – CLA
TLI:

Result                  36.8  µg/l             > 5

Inretation:
TLI values < 2.5µg/l are indicative for exocrine pancreas
insufficiency (EPI).
With values of > 5.0 µg/l a EPI is most unlikely. 2.5 to 5.0 µg/l
is considered to be a questionable; a control measurement should be considered after 2 3 months time according to the clinical sings.
Reasons for questionable values are:
– acute phase of chronic pancreatitis
– sampling time within 12 hours post feeding
TLI values > 35 µg/l are indicative for pancreatitis. Renal
insufficiency can result in retention of TLI and thus falsely
elevated TLI resp.
                                               Vitamin B12 Concentration – CLA
Vitamin B12          748    pg/ml       300-800
Folic Acid Concentration – CLA
folic acid           5.73 ng/ml         3.0-10.0”

The ultrasound study showed high-grade meteorism and reactive patch plaques. No increased mesenteric lymph nodes were detected. Clinically, diarrhea was accompanied by tenesmus and fresh blood.

pic 17

Based on TLI levels, we included metronidazole 7,5 mg/kg/12h/p.o for 5 weeks.

On May 23, 2019 We took blood for a full blood count – the leukocytes and neutrophils were at baseline according to the reference values. However, the hematocrit, the hemoglobin and the red blood cells levels were still low. The condition of the patient had worsen after eating food from the rubbish bin.  The ultrasound study showed high-grade meteorism and reactive patch plaques; the wall of the colon had begun to decrease in size; corrugation of the colon appeared. We placed an intravenous catheter and included fluid therapy NaCl 55 ml/h, antiemetics (famotidine and pantoprazole), vitamins (vit C, B- complex, arginine ,ornithine, citrulline), antioxidants (duphalyte, amynoplasmal), probiotics (Fortiflora and Pro-kolin paste), haemostatic drugs (Vit K1 and etamsylate), metronidazole, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin 5%.  We chose to stop the prednisolone and try budesonide sachet in dose 2 mg/kg/24h/p.o. The dog continued to weaken progressively.

Pic 18

*) abdominal ultrasound from 23.05.2019

 

 

On May 30, 2019 we took blood for a biochemical profile, which showed the following results – elevated bilirubin, elevated ALT, AST, ALP, low creatinine. On the same day, we reduced the prednisolone (1 mg/kg/12h) to include ciclosporin. Clinically the dog continued to weaken and lose muscle mass progressive. The owners started adding veterinary ciclosporin liquit in dose 5 mg/kg/24h/p.o. Three hours after the intake of cyclosporine the dog’s condition deteriorated dramatically, began to vomit and defecate only fresh blood. Unfortunately, we hospitalized the dog again.

The condition of the colon was getting worse.

Pict 19

*) abdominal ultrasound from 02.06.2019

We started intravenous methylprednisolone again in combination with the rest of the therapy to stabilize the patient. He didn’t want to eat alone again.

On June 04 we took blood for a biochemical profile, which showed the following results – improvement in liver enzymes as well as in pancreatic lipase levels and normal creatinine. Two days later, Robin stopped vomiting and received the rest of the therapy. We fed him three times a day with hypoallergenic food (Royal Canin Hypoallegenic cans).

On June 08 the dog felt better; body temperature was in norm; Robin started to eat with appetite again. Diarrhea continued to be abundant and watery, accompanied by blood and tenesmus. We started budesonide, and stopped methylprednisolone.Pic 20

 

Despite the applied complex therapy, diarrhea was unaffected. Defecation continued to be extremely frequent with blood and tenesmus. The patient continued to lose weight and muscle mass progressively. On 11 June Robin was discharged from the clinic with home therapy of budesonide and cyclosporine only. The owners had been offered euthanasia.

Pict 21

The wall of the column progressively hyperplasia.

I apply some photos of the dog on the day of euthanasia:logo

pic 22

CAT KNEE ARTHRODESIS -SERIAL CASE REPORT

logoOrthopedic Department of Veterinary clinics “Dobro hrumvane” – Sofia, Bulgaria

Every cat knee arthrodesis is an orthopedic challenge. Cats have relatively long bones, crista tibia is narrow and even sharp most cranially, and they are very active animals with common post-op serious vertical efforts, for example jumping to and from furnitures and even refrigerators. The arthrodesis of their knees requires maximal stability of the fixation, freedom for intraoperatively estimation for usage of different screws on one and the same plate – from 2.0 mm to 2.7 mm thick, a serious attention to the fixation of the plate to crista tibiae and the underlying tibia. And, of course, maximal level of aseptic and antiseptic procedures and algorithms: by every orthopedic surgery the possibility for post-op infection is proportional to the implants surface in sq mm and during arthrodesis we use wide and thick plate with serious surface and many screws sometimes even wires with serious surface too.

During the last 16 years we passed through different variations of the arthrodesis technique with different implants systems – at the beginning non-locking, later locking. Fortunately finally we found not only the best for us technique variant but also the most reliable for us implanst system and achieved constantly excellent results in 9 cats.

All 9 surgeries were very smilar with approximately equal percentage of covering of femurs as well of tibias. By all of them we used one and the same system – Mikromed locking 2.4 with one and the same plate – symmetrical limited contact straigth locking plate with “bridging” area in the middle (without hole for screw). In all 9 cases this bridging segment was positioned in the area of the femuro-tibial connection. In all cases we used on one and the same plate different screws – locking Mikromed 2.4 mm (in the tibia) and 2.7 mm (in the femur and in the bigger cats in the tibia as well) and non-locking (2.0 mm, 2.4 mm and 2.7 mm). In all cases before the tibial plating we took away with Rounger curette the most cranial 1-3 mm wide part of crista tibiae which procedure should be made very carefully and doesn’t compromise the fixation because in cats crista tibiae is build by bone compacta more caudally in comparison to dogs (that why we recommend in case of transposition of crista tibiae to cut the osteotomy into the tibia as caudal as possible – of course not damaging the menisci – in order not to compromise the healing process; but this is another story for another technique).

The patients and their individual stories before the surgery were not similar, however the results were equal: constatnly 100 % excellent. Here we present two different cases: Cat Gosho, under 4 kg, allowing manipulations without problems, with trauma not more than 2 weeks before the surgery, without muscle atrophy; and Cat Aksel, over 6 kg, very difficult to be manipulated and with “specific” temperament, which trauma happened before approx 2 years and as result the patients leg had severe muscle atrophy and weakness of the ahilea tendon.

The only difference in the approaches to both patients was the fact that because of the weight and the temperament of Aksel we left both situational wires in comparison to the surgery of Gosho where we removed them after finishing the plating process.

As in all orthopedic surgeries in cats we do not loose intra-operatively time for plate bending – more time means bigger risk of anesthetic problems and infection. We have a big collection of cat bones (cat bones are very similar, the dog bones aren’t) from cats of different weight including “arthrodesed” femur+tibia combinations. We use these models before autoclaving the implants for perfect contouring the plate to the bones and bnes combinations and for preparation of the perfect screws combination.

We recommend the dynamic compressive screw to be not in the femur but in the tibia this means to fix the plate with locking screws first to the femur and after that to start fixing it to the tibia. We recommend two non-locking 2.0 mm cross-screws in both holes nearest to the plate middle. We strongly recommend to take off the most cranial 1-3 mm slice of the tibial (crista tibiae) silhouette with Rounger for better contact between plate and bone and respectively best stability. And, of course, do not forget to take off all the cartilages, menisci, cruciate ligaments and the patella and to compress tibia to femur as strong as possible.

The nine cases prove that there is not any need of longer plates covering bigger percent of the femural and tibial length. We monitored all the 9 cats for period between 2y4m to 1 m after the procedure and there aren’t any signs of problems including fissures or fractures of bones at the plate edges.

Video of Gosho 10 m post-op:

As usually the goal is the patient to start using the leg very soon. In the first 2-5 weeks some hyperextensy of the hook and abduction of the leg are normal.

Cat Aksel 96h post-op:

Conclusion: the presented at the X-ray pictures below variant of cat knee arthrodesis with lockig system Mikromed 2.4 guarantees constantly excellent result.

Gosho X-Ray pictures:

pic 1

Pre-operator

pic 2

post operator

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aksel X-Ray pictures:

pic 3

pre operator

pic 4

post operator

„Slow Kill” – adulticide protocol in heartworm treatment! Can we use it? When to use it? How to use it?

13549281_10207110414020766_1752592814_oTodor Kalinov DVM

 

veterinary clinic “Vitalis”, Plovdiv, Bulgaria

drkalinov80@gmail.com

 

 

 

Heartworm disease is caused by Dirofilaria immitis. The disease is widely distributed throughout Europe. Species susceptible to infection are dogs, wolves, foxes, coyotes, cats, ferrets, muskrats, sea lions, and humans. The parasite is transmitted by over 70 species of mosquitoes.

Adult heartworms reside in pulmonary arteries and in cases of severe infections in the right ventricle. Mature female parasites produce microfilariae and release them into the circulation. The feeding female mosquitoes ingest these microfilariae, and they undergo two molts, L1 – L2 – L3, over an 8 to 17 dаy period. This process is temperature-dependent (at least 18 C are needed). The L3 are infective and are transmitted by the mosquito to the hosts. In the subcutaneous, adipose, and skeletal muscle tissue L3 molt to L4 for 1 to 12 days and L4 molts to S5 – immature adults, for 2 to 3 months. The Immature adults enter the vascular system, migrating to the heart and lungs, where final maturation and mating occur. Under optimal conditions, completion of the life cyclе takes 184 to 210 days.

The adult worms cause the following through mechanical, immune-induced, and through toxic substances: inflammation and proliferation of the pulmonary arteries, pulmonary thromboembolism, pulmonary hypertension, and right-sided heart failure. Clinical signs of the disease are weight loss, exercise intolerance, lethargy, poor condition, cough, dyspnea, syncope, abdominal distention.1

According to the guidelines of the American Heartworm Society2 treatment of the heartworm infection consists of doxycycline 10 mg/kg BID for 28 days, monthly use of macrocyclic lactones, and melarsomine at days 60, 90 and 91.

In other publication3, the authors suggest administration of melarsomine on day 30 , 60 and 61, to make the protocol shorter, and to better comply with the owner’s financial resources.

 

In certain circumstances, melarsomine dihydrochloride could be contraindicated, unavailable, or not affordable to the owners. In this situation the practicing veterinarian could use the so-called “Slow kill” or “Soft kill” protocol.  It consists of the use of macrocyclic lactones in prophylactic doses with and withоut doxycycline to kill adult heartworms4–6. In most of the studies, the results are not satisfactory. L. Venco et al.6 used ivermectin – 6mcg/kg, monthly and had 100% microfilaricidal efficiency after 7 months, and 71% adulticidal efficiency after 24 months. The authors do not recommend this treatment regime in patient with clinical, radiographic or echocardiographic signs. G. Grandi et al.4 used doxycycline – 10 mg/kg/sid for 30 days and ivermectin-pyrantel – 6mcg/kg-14mg/kg every 15 days. By day 90 one hundred percent of the dogs became negative for microfilariae, and 72.7% became antigen-negative by day 300.

The study of Savadelis et al.7from 2017 had results similar to melarsomine treatment for a relatively short period of time. They used topical moxidectin 2.5%+imidacloprid 10% monthly with combination of doxycycline 10mg/kg/bid for 30 days. All treated dogs became negative for microfilariae at day 21. Ten months after the beginning the adulticidal efficacy was 95.6%. Hence, the conclusion of the authors is that this treatment regimen is a relatively quick, reliable and safe option to treat canine heartworm infection as compared to other treatment regimens involving macrocyclic lactones, when the approved drug melarsomine dihydrochloride is unavailable, contraindicated or declined by an owner unable to afford the more costly treatment or concerned about the potential side effects”.

I used this protocol numeral times with very good results. Most of the dogs were with class 4 heartworm disease and caval syndrome. Probably the most severe case was a 10-year-old Bulgarian shepherd dog. At presentation, the dog was cachectic, could not walk, did not eat for several days, and had ascites. Blood work revealed slight leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and thrombocytopenia, slightly increase in ALAT, ASAT, BUN, decrease in albumin, and the test for HW antigens was positive. Echocardiographic examination revealed severely dilated right atrium and right ventricle, with heartworms in the tricuspid valve region(video 1).

photo2

photo 2

The left atrium and ventricle were collapsed due to severe pulmonary hypertension. Of course, in this situation surgical extraction of the worms is the first choise8, but this option was declined by the owners. So we started treatment with doxycycline 10 mg/kg/sid, moxidectin+imidacloprid topically, and sildenafil 1mg/kg/bid. Several days after the start of the treatment the dog was in better condition, and on the echocardiographic examination we found that the left ventricle is relatively dilated, compared with the previous exam, the number of worms in the tricuspid valve region was subjectively lower. However, on m-mode, the systolic motions of Interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall was weak(photo 2). Therefore we suggested that the dog has subclinical dilated cardiomyopathy, which contributed to the development of the caval syndrome. We added pimobendane – 0.25mg/kg/bid and benazepril – 0.5 mg/kg/bid and prednisolone – 0.5mg/kg/sid to the therapy for thromboembolism prophylactic. On the next control examination, the dog was feeling better, there were no heartworms in the right atrium and ventricle and in the pulmonary artery(photo 3,4).

photo4

photo 4

photo3

photo 3

photo 5

photo 5

After a month from the diagnosis we stopped the doxycycline and continued with other pimobendane, benazepril, topical moxidectin+imidacloprid, sildenafil, and prednisolone – 0.5 mg/kg/48h. After two more months we gradually stopped the prednisolone. Six months after diagnosis the antigen test for heartworms was negative. The dog still had severe pulmonary hypertension, exercise intolerance and coughed occasionally. We continued treatment with pimobendane, benazepril and sildenafil and monthly moxidectin+imidacloprid for heartworms prophylactic. The dog lived for two more years and died from noncardiogenic reasons. I have similar results with two other large-breed dogs, also with caval syndrome, with complete resolution of clinical signs and withdrawal of all drugs, only continuing with moxidectin+imidacloprid for heartworm prophylactic. A small-bred dog developed severe pulmonary hypertension and tricuspid valve granuloma after the third month probably due to damages of the tricuspid valve from heartworms(photo 5), and untreatable right-side heart failure. Soon after the dog was euthanized.

The “slow kill” protocol is arguably more suitable for large and giant breed dogs, where the surgical extraction is more challenging, and the treatment with melarsomine is more expensive. In caval syndrome, the worms could be moved back in the pulmonary artery with a combination of pimobendane and sildenafil. Sildenafil is a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor, and pimobendane is a phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitor. The combination leads to more profound reduction in pulmonary artery pressure. The pimobendane has positive inotropic effect, hence the combination of improved myocardial function and lower pulmonary artery pressure helps in movement of the heartworms from right heart in pulmonary artery9(photo 6, 7 – before and after administration of pimobendane and sildenafil).

photo 6

photo 6

photo 7

photo 7

In small and medium dog breeds the surgical extraction, when possible, is the best choice, however, do not exclude the use of macrocyclic lactones and melarsomine.

In conclusion, when we treat a dog with dirofilariosis, we should first rely on the American heartworm society guidelines2. When we decide to use the Slow kill protocol, the macrocyclic lactone of choice is topical moxidectin. It has a unique pharmacokinetic, establishing a peak several days after application, long half-life about 28 days, and steady-state levels after four monthly applications, ensuring constant and high exposure of the parasites to the drug10,11. Of course doxycycline is also mandatory for adulticide therapy. Last but not least, we always have to think of the patient, we have to treat the patient rather than the disease, and to ensure good quality of life to them.

FECAVA announced Didier-Noël Carlotti Award Laureate: Assistant Professor Dr. Bogdan-Alexandru Vitalaru from Romania

23131883_1723169741051257_1944002556383533163_nThe Didier-Noël Carlotti Award (DCA) is named after a veterinary surgeon who initiated, planned and inspired FECAVA and who served as its first President for four years. The Didier-Noël Carlotti Award is presented annually for ‘outstanding service in the fields of inter-professional communication and/or continuing education for companion animal veterinarians in Europe’.Capture d’écran 2017-09-05 à 15.30.43

In 2019, the DCA award will be received by Assistant Professor Dr. Bogdan-Alexandru Vitalaru from Romania.

He was selected for the Award by the DCA Committee and will receive it at the opening ceremony of the 25th FECAVA EuroCongress in St. Petersburg.

Assistant Professor Bogdan Alexandru Vitalaru graduated the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest in 2004, PhD since October 2009, and he has participated since then in numerous national and international conferences, both as a doctor and as a lecturer. Since January 2016 he became Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest.

Over the years he has written more than 100 scientific papers on topics related to oncologic surgery, dialysis, hemodialysis and emergencies. His 4 books about emergencies were sold in more than 2000 copies in Romania in the last 4 years. His last book it is completely dedicated to peritoneal dialysis in small animals and it has been released also in English in Italy, Bulgaria, Turkey, Greece, Croatia, Ukraine and Poland starting February 2018.28471893_1212686848867718_2541073989731187894_n 49848433_2438242006214507_5459535691056676864_n

Since January 2014, in collaboration with BBraun Romania, within the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, he opened the first Veterinary Hemodialysis Clinic in Romania and one of the few in Eastern Europe.

Starting 2013, he established the Romanian Association of Veterinary Nephrology, Hemodialivet, who’s Chairman he is.

In the last 10 years, Dr. Vitalaru has been a lecturer for Hills Romania and KTL in Romania and Europe regarding urology, nephrology and renal replacement therapies. He is also leading the Emergency Department of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest since 2015.22154250_1512540295490310_2300870383746233502_n

Starting 2014, Dr. Vitalaru has initiated a program of workshops and seminars regarding renal patients all over Romania (București, Iași, Cluj, Timișoara, Brașov, Constanța), Bulgaria (Varna, Stara Zagora), Poland (Krakow, Warsaw), Croatia (Zagreb), Italy (Perugia, Pisa) and in Turkey (Istanbul, Ankara, Antalya). He was awarded with the Continuing medical education prize – AMVAC/RoSAVA, Sinaia 12-14 November 2015 and SPEAKER OF THE YEAR – Romanian College of Veterinarians, Bucharest, 17 December 2015. He is a member within the board of some of the most prestigious publications in Romania: Cat life, 2015, Romanian Journal of Veterinary Orthopedics and Imagistic, 2015, Romanian Journal of Veterinary Medicine & Pharmacology, 2016, Romanian Cardiology Review. In 2016, Dr. Vitalaru has received the Special Prize for the best veterinary initiative of the year in Romania – Innovation in Health.39515211_2117230608311833_1547971329477574656_n 55811478_2440517709316453_3635058829533642752_n

Since November 2017 he is a board member of AMVAC (Small Animal Romanian Practitioners Association), FECAVA Director for Romania and since October 2017, Dr. Vitalaru is FECAVA Ambassador and ROVECCS Ambassador (Romanian EVECCS partener).

His passions are mountain hiking, fishing and nature and as a result of this, he has initiated in 2017 a Vet Camp in the Romanian mountains with vets all around Romania.

The greatest achievements of his life are Silvia his wife and his two beautiful daughters: Natalia and Sofia.40082786_10216876652047378_4749508800241729536_n 57384291_2505251306176426_5657680386600206336_n

Learn and Travel ….. story from vets

67509335_393199464955171_7827241570955952128_nDr Elena Nenciulescu from Romania has done her externship with Ana Nemec, DVM, PhD, Dipl. AVDC, Dipl. EVDC at our project LEARN AND TRAVEL with Vets on The Balkans.

We would like to express our gratitude as well to The University of Ljubliana, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Slovenia for the opporunity!

 

Let her tell us her story:

Last week I had the amazing opportunity to assist Dr. Ana Nemec during dental procedures and dental consultations. It really was AMAZING!learn and travel

I arrived in Ljubljana on Sunday, July 27th. I had a little rest and the next day my journey in the Slovenian world of veterinary dentistry began. The weekly schedule is usually like this: Monday, Tuesday, Thursday and Friday are for dental procedures (2-3 cases per day) and Wednesday is only for consultations.

On the first day, Dr. Nemec showed me the clinic (very well equipped, with ultrasound machine, X-ray machine and CT). What really impressed me was the dentistry room. It is fantastic: dental unit, dental X-ray machine, dental table (custom made) and all dental instruments and materials that you need for dental materials for exodontics, endodontics, orthodontics, orthopaedics and oral surgery. It was like heaven for me!

All the dental procedures that I assisted had the following steps:

  1. Dental consultation under anaesthesia and filling the dental chart (using the periodontal probe, every tooth was examined – mobility, gingival retraction, furcation exposure, gingivitis, periodontal depth)
  2. Full mouth dental X-rays and interpretation
  3. Sonic scaling and polishing
  4. Surgical extractions (the teeth were extracted based on the clinical and radiological findings)

It is important to perform all steps correctly and not to miss any of them. 90% of dentistry cases in general practice are periodontal patients that need periodontal therapy, so this is what all vets should learn to do properly.

Dental chart for cats Dental table prepared for the patient Dental unit, dental table, intraoral X-ray and equipment for anaesthesia

I had the chance to see a wide range of cases: mild to severe periodontal disease, stomatitis, tooth resorption, tooth avulsion, crown fractures, chin eosinophilic granuloma, peripheral odontogenic fibroma, intraosseous squamacell carcinoma, endodontic treatment re-check, but also cases of no dental disease that came in only to learn oral homecare which is also a big must for maintaining the oral health of our pets. All cases were discussed in detail.

Dr. Nemec is such a positive person, teaching dentistry is something natural for her. She answered all my questions (and there were many of them). I consider myself very lucky to be given this opportunity. I learned a lot!

But it was not all dental work for me last week, I also visited the city. Ljubljana is beautiful: the castle, the city centre, the museums, the Tivoli Park. It is worth visiting. I enjoyed my stay there very much. On Saturday, August 3rd I traveled back home.

Vets on the Balkans and Luba Gancheva, thank you for giving me this opportunity. Learn and Travel is a fantastic chance to grow professionally. Dr. Ana Nemec, thank you so much sharing all you knowledge with me! I am really grateful for this experience.

2 3 6 8 9

Hypothyroidism- 2 case reports with different approach

 

72749_499770162813_6858159_nDr Dimitar Ivanov,
Veterinary surgeon, Neurology specialist. ESAVS Neurology courses
Dobro hrumvane veterinary clinics
Sofia, Bulgaria

Dr.d.ivanov.vet@gmail.com

 

 

Hypothyroidism endocrine disease that can be reason for very different neurological signs, varying from signs of polyradiculoneuritis to neurological signs from the brain and vestibular disorder.

The good news are that all of this neurological problems and deficits can be reverse with adequate treatment, good nursing and physiotherapy.

I will present 2 cases of hypothyroidism in dogs with very different neurological signs. In first case I did not believe that this disease can manifest so heavy clinical signs. In second case, I took blood sample for fT4 just to be sure that this is not hypothyroidism.

Scarlett

Signalment: Dog, F, 9 y.o., Samoyed

History: Two days ago while the dog is on a walk, the owner noticed small paresis with front legs but it was for few minutes and they went back home. The dog came in the clinic on 1st of December in lateral recumbency, not able to stand up and not able to stay on her legs, even with help. The dog could not eat without help and holding the head and the body.

General examination: no abnormalities, the dog was not vaccinated the last year. Orthopedic examination: no abnormalities.

Neurological examination:

-Hands off exam:

  • Consciousness – normal
  • Behavior – can’t find any abnormalities in this position
  • Seizers – no seizers
  • Body posture – lateral recumbency but the dog can move head and neck
  • Gait – symmetrical tetraplegia

-Hands on exam:

  • Cranial nerves – no neurological deficits
  • Postural reaction – can’t be checked in this position
  • Spinal reflexes – absent withdrawal reflex on both front legs, reduced extensor carpi radialis on the right front leg, there are no abnormalities in hind limbs spinal reflexes. Normal tail movement, there is a perineal reflex and normal deep pain sensation.

Localization: C6 – Th2

Differential diagnosis: Degenerative/Neoplastic/Vascular

At this point we were unable to make CT or MRI and the decision was to use steroids in dose 2 mg/kg, famotidine 0,5 mg/kg/12 h p.o., Omeprazole 1 mg/kg/24 h p.o. and to see what will happen on the next day. On the next day the dog was in the same condition and I repeat the steroid. After second injection the dog has profuse diarrhea so we stopped the steroid and treated the GI signs.

Two days later we made CT and there are no abnormalities.

 

 

On the next day was taken blood sample for biochemistry and fT4. The biochemistry showed no specific abnormalities, but fT4 was very low.

fT4 – 0,1 pmol/L (7,7 – 47,60 pmol/L)

 

Creatinin – 39 mmol/L (44,3 – 138,4 mmol/L)

Glucose – 6,2 mmol/L (3,4 – 6,00 mmol/L)

Creatin kinase – 298,1 U/L (13,7 – 119,7 U/L)

LDH – 576,9 U/L (24,1 – 219,2 U/L)

Magnesium – 2,00 mmol/L (0,7 – 1,1 mmol/L)

 

The algorithm was to start levothyroxine and if we don’t have any results may be the reason for this condition is polyradiculoneurtis.

I didn’t believe that the reason for so hard clinical signs is only hypothyroidism.

Eight days later the dog was with total areflexion of all four limbs.

 

The decision was to take CSF, muscle biopsy (from M. gastrocnemius, M. triceps brachii) and nerve biopsy (from n. peroneus). The samples (the biopsies and the CSF smear) were send to Laboklin Germany. The cells count, protein, glucose and microbiology of CSF were made in laboratory department of “Dobro hrumvane!” veterinary clinics.

The results were:

Number of cells – normal (<5)

Protein total – 2.4 (<25)

Glucose – 4.6 (80% of normal blood values)

Microbiology – negative

“The smears were cell free. Only few keratin flakes were present.
Diagnosis:
1:
– striated muscle with multifocal mild degenerative and regeneative
changes
– mild multifocal purulent perivasculitis (M. gastrocnemius)

2:
– histologically normal nervous tissue

Critical report:
Mild multifocal degenerative and regenerative changes of the        striated muscle was found. A specific cause was not detected. It    should be kept in mind, that in muscle pathology there may not be a strong correlation between histological changes and severity of the clinical symptoms.
Considering the purulent perivasculitis in the sample of the M.
gastrocnemius an inflammatory (possibly infectious) process in other
locations should be excluded clinically.
Signs for a polyneuritis have not been observed within the examined
locations.”

I had to resign that the most likely cause of Scarlett’s condition was hypothyroidism and we started physiotherapy procedures.

Meanwhile, the patient’s condition has begun to improve. First Scarlett started to move her head better, started to lay on her chest and started eating by herself. The muscle tone start to improve.

40 days later

 

The day that Scarlett left the clinic.

 

 

Chata

Signalment: Dog, F, 5 y.o., German shepherd dog

History: Everything started with variable appetite. The dog came in the clinic for second opinion on 06.06.2019.

Colleague already took blood samples and there were no specific abnormalities.

 

Neurological examination:

-Hands off exam:

  • Consciousness – abnormal
  • Behavior – abnormal
  • Seizers – no seizers
  • Body posture – abnormal, head tilt, from time to time head turn, opisthotonus
  • Gait – abnormal, symmetrical, general proprioceptive ataxia

 

 

-Hands on exam:

  • Cranial nerves – vision, oculovestibular and menace is absent, contraction of the pupils is normal but dilatation is reduced, increased jaw tone, reduced gag reflex and reaction of the tongue.
  • Postural reaction – proprioception and hopping are absent
  • Spinal reflexes – absent withdrawal reflex on the left front legs, reduced on the right front leg.

 

Localization: Central vestibular

Differential diagnosis: Metabolic/Inflammatory/Neoplastic

I took blood samples to examine fT4 just to be sure that this is not hypothyroidism.

We discussed with the owner that if there is no abnormalities in thyroid hormones we will take and make some tests with CSF.

The level of fT4 was 1,60 pmol/ L (7,7 – 47,60 pmol/L)L

I started levothyroxine and after two intakes of the medication the result was:

The next few weeks the dog was not still in perfect condition, but there was improvement.

Conclusion: Hypothyroidism is often over diagnosed condition, but is also misdiagnosed metabolic disease with lots of different signs and different manifestation in every part in veterinary medicine.

logo

Persistent right aortic arch

Presentation1Tsvetan Ivanov, Dimitar Ivanov, Vladi Kirilov – veterinary clinics “Dobro hrumvane!”- Sofia, Bulgaria

 

  1. Introduction:

The persistent right aortic arch (PRAA) is vascular ring which is formed by the aortic arch on the right side, with ligamentum arteriosum dorsolaterally, and pulmonary artery on the left and ventrally. This ring compresses the esophagus and trachea, which leads to swallowing difficulty. This malformation is with genetic prevalence and represents  error in embryogenesis of the dog. In 95% of the cases of this vascular ring anomaly, a constricting band prevents solid foods from passing to the stomach which prevents the puppy from thriving well.  In the remaining 5% of cases, a bizarre anomaly of the vessels is present (double aortic arch and aberrant subclavian artery), which may be difficult to correct and may not have a good prognosis.pic 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

Signs of this condition usually become apparent shortly after weaning, when a puppy begins eating semi-solid or solid food.  While milk will slide down nicely, bulky foods will “jam up” in the esophagus, leading to a stretched structure and the inability to get food down, hence the symptom known as regurgitation. Regurgitation involves the puppy producing undigested food and mucus through the mouth with no effort; the pup tilts its head down and the food and mucus simply roll out.  By contrastvomiting is an active process, meaning there are abdominal contractions (heaving) and a retching noise when food and mucus are expelled out the mouth.

Often complication of the regurgitation is aspiration pneumonia (AP), which leads to poor prognosis for the patient.

The standart therapy is surgical and is with good prognosis if there is no signs of AP. Before the surgery CBC and blood chemistry is required – WBC is important to rule out infection and the level of blood sugar should be in the reference values. The surgery can be open thoracotomy or thoracoscopy – the goal is to ligate and resect the fibrous annulus.

 

  1. Patient report

The patient is 2 months old german shepherd dog with history of vomiting after eating, according to the owners, but there is no problems with water drinking. The dog have diarrhea but is in good overall condition. When the dog sleeps there is strange noises from his neck and there is visible peristaltic waves in the level of 1-st rib.

We perform CPV/CCV/Giardia and the result was negative. The CBC and blood chemistry shows no difference from the reference values.

pic 2

pic 2

Then we made x-ray of the chest: pic 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Because of the typical sign of the chest, we performed and BaSO4 examination, and this was the result:pic 3

pic 3

pic 3

So our diagnosis is PRAA with no signs of AP. We performed surgery on the next day – it was open thoracotomy with ligation of the annulus.

Differentiation of the fibrous ring:

pic 4 pic 5 pic 6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

It’s was administrated antibiotics, pain killers, sedatives and assisted feeding. We didn’t use thoracic tube after the surgery.

On the fourth day after the surgery, the dog was discharged. Three months after the surgery the owners still make assisted feeding, but the dog is not vomiting and is in good condition.