Here you can find info about our clinical cases,exchanging experience
- MOISE ADRIANA
SIGNALMENT AND HISTORY
- FEMALE CAT , 2 YEARS OLD WAS PRESENTED FOR A CLINICAL EXAMINATION WITH HYPERSALIVATION , HALITOSIS, LACK OF APPETITE FOR PROCESSED DRY FOOD
-THE CAT HAD NORMOTHERMIA AND A NORMAL BODY WEIGHT
-AT PHYSICAL EXAMINATION SHE PRESENTED ULCERATIVE LESIONS IN ORAL CAVITY, LOCALISED ON GINGIVAL MUCOSA, INFLAMATION ON PALATOGLOSSAL FOLDS AND PHARYNGEAL WALLS
-EDEMA WAS PRESENTED AND LOCAL LYMPHNODES WERE REACTIVE TOO
LESIONS WERE PRESENTED BILATERAL ( photo 1,2)
-FELINE LYMPHOPLASMACYTIC GINGIVITIS-STOMATITIS COMPLEX
-FELINE CALICIVIRUS INFECTION
-FELINE HERPESVIRUS INFECTION
-FELINE EOSINOFILIC SINDROME
-FELINE CALICIVIRUS Ac –NEGATIVE
-FELINE IMMUNODEFICIENCY – FIV Ac-ELISA –NEGATIVE
-FELINE LEUCHEMIA –FELV Ag-ELISA – NEGATIVE
-THE CORONAVIRUS Ac TITRE – INCREASE
-CITOLOGY FROM IMPRESSION SMEAR – INCREASE NUMBER OF BACTERIA AND NUMEROUS ACTIVE INFLAMATORY CELLS
BLOOD TEST (BIOCHEMISTRY) WAS NORMAL
-HEMATOLOGY REVEALS LYMPHOCYTOSIS
-CYTOLOGY AND HYSTOPATOLOGIC EXAM CONFIRMED THE DIAGNOSTIC – FELINE LYMPHOPLASMACYTIC GINGIVITIS STOMATITIS COMPLEX
FELINE LYMPHOPLASMACYTIC GINGIVITIS STOMATITIS COMPLEX
UNTIL WE GOT THE RESULTS THE OWNER BEGINS TO TREAT THE CAT WITH
-STOMODINE GEL TWISE A DAY, 14 DAYS
-CEFA CURE 20MG/KG/DAY, 10 DAYS
-SYNBIOTIC D-C 1CPS/DAY, 10 DAYS
-K9 IMMUNE SUPPORT CAT
-AFTER 10 DAYS OF TREATMENT THE INFLAMATION BEGAN TO REDUCE BUT THE ULCERS DO NOT HAVE THE TENDANCE OF HEALING
AFTER WE GOT THE DIAGNOSTIC THE CAT GETS THE FURTHER TREATMENT
-PREDNISON 2MG/KG/DAY, 5 DAYS; THEN 1MG/KG/DAY , 5 DAYS FOLLOWEDBY EVERY OTHER DAY
-STOMODINE GEL TWICE A DAY LOCAL
-HONNEY WITH PROPOLIS LOCAL
WHEN SHE CAME FOR THE EVALUATION AFTER 5 DAYS OF TREATMENT WE SAW THAT THE LESIONS HAD A TENDANCE TO REDUCE, BUT AFTER ANOTHER 5 DAYS THE LESIONS WERE EXACTLY THE SAME AS THE BEGINNING
-WE DECIDED TO INTRODUCE CYCLOSPORINE IN THE TREATMENT
-THE CAT IS PERMANENTLY MONITORIZED ; HLG IS MADE EVERY 2 WEEKS
-AFTER 2 WEEKS OF TREATMENT THE LOCAL INFLAMATION BEGINS TO REDUCE
-AFTER 1 MONTH OF TREATMENT THE LESIONS FROM ONE SIDE WERE HEALD
-THE CAT IS STILL UNDER TREATMENT
-THERE IS NO SIGN OF SECOND EFFECTS OF CYCLOSPORINE
If you have already realised that providing high quality veterinary medicine services to exotic pets can increase your turnover and enhance clientele then let me congratulate you! This article will give you an easy step-by-step guide to follow in order to make the best of your new venture.
Have you wondered why so few vets are seeing exotics? Some frequent explanations include:
- Most vets get little training in caring for exotic pets and as a consequence they get stressed when having to see an exotic pet. Many clinicians will refuse to see them unless it’s a first aid situation and the ones that do, probably won’t generate sufficient income to cover their time.
- If surgical intervention is required, the price for the time spent with an exotic animal, a rabbit for example, is almost half that compared with the same time spent caring for a dog or a cat.
It is no surprise that exotic animal medicine is not high on the preference list of any sensible practice owner. But this is because you’ve been doing it all wrong!
These steps will guide you in starting up a successful exotic animal department in your clinic.
- Don’t cut corners, practice good quality medicine
The slogan “Gold standard practice” is unfortunately overused these days. Many practices advertise gold standard protocols, however these apply to dog and cat patients only. When it comes to seeing an exotic pet, basic investigations like a simple blood sample or a faecal test are often not even offered to owners and this is where the clinic is losing money and clients.
Through having your staff trained and consequently confident in carrying out specific procedures on exotic pets this will not be the case.
Protocols for different alignments should be in place for exotic animals as well as for small mammals to secure the best care for all pets. Having protocols in place will facilitate a fast treatment set-up at the best standard, easily followed even by inexperienced vets when there’s no support around.
There are a wealth of specialised procedures to be carried out on exotics and trained veterinarians and/or nurses will be able to offer all this to customers, generating more income for the practice.
Encouraging best care practice will stimulate your staff to keep up to date with their training; practice high standard procedures and good outcomes will not stay unnoticed for long. As a consequence more owners will register with your practice. Your staff will be delighted to be at the top of their job taking pride in what they do.
- Train your staff
Having your staff trained into caring for exotic animals their procedures can be fast, successful and stress free. Because major differences exist between exotic and small mammals, one must have specialised training in order to be able to look after exotics.
Knowledge and confidence is what you need in your team. Offering a generous list of fairly priced specialised procedures will generate more work for the practice and can only be an asset comparing with your competitors (I will return to this later in this article).
Naturally, trained staff will exude confidence and gain owners trust. Consequently, owners will be more likely to agree to more high risk or specialised procedures which they might otherwise hesitate upon; again, thus increasing your revenue.
Practices with trained staff to care for exotics are scarce, so letting your customers know what your team can do and what their level of training is, will not only serve to retain existing clients but will also attract new customers to the practice, and these new customers will often have more than one pet. And who doesn’t like a growing client base?!
- Charge a fair price for your services
Establishing a fair price is the key factor in setting up your business for failure or success.
Firstly, it is important to understand that there is no relation between the purchase price of a pet and the costs for its medical treatment.
Some people will adopt stray dogs and request for expensive laparoscopic rather than traditional neutering. No surgeon would hesitate to give them an accurate estimate. However when contemplating performing a tortoise spay, most surgeons will doubt the owners’ willingness to accept the surgery as a first option because of the costs involved. However, this is only our assumption!
Set your pricing to charge fairly for your time, your assistants’ time, the materials used and not least for your skill.
Pricing all materials used (like catheters, swabs, gloves etc.) separately will show owners how much the consumables cost, otherwise owners have no idea how much an urinary catheter is and not giving them a detailed bill can lead to confusion. Pricing of the consultation fee should cover time spent with the client and overhead costs such as rent, electricity, water etc. Pricing for the individual procedures carried out (like “placing an IV catheter” or” blood collection”) must cover your salary costs and the cost of ongoing training. The message here is that all costs should be factored in rather than just absorbed.
To your advantage is the fact that few veterinary surgeries offer good quality medicine for unusual pets. If you are clearly the best at it, you have little competition. There is nothing inherently wrong with being expensive but you should not forget that this approach requires continuous training and investment in equipment.
My experience has shown that owners shopping around for price rarely become good, loyal clients. They will always be difficult to convince to agree to investigations and will be likely to complain more if things don’t work out immediately (this is natural, because they can’t afford to spend more money for further tests if needed). The question is not whether you need these clients, but whether you can afford them. Charitable care organisations might be more appropriate for financially challenged clients.
Customers shopping for quality and excellence in veterinary care will be yours for life and will pay fairly for your services because they understand and appreciate your approach. Make this group your target clientele and your efforts will pay off.
Working with exotic pets requires that some adjustments to the hospital facilities and dispensary are made. Exotic pets are escape artists, easily stressed and some of them are poikilothermic, will need special hospitalisation facilities like a vivarium or even an incubator. With a modest budget you’ll be able to adjust your clinic to their needs (to keep costs down you can consider buying vivariums, loupes or surgical instruments second hand).
Most medication used is similar to that for small mammals, however, be aware that dosage is not, so be careful and make sure to consult your exotic medicine library.
ARAV.ORG, AAV.ORG , AEMV.ORG are prestigious, reliable sources of information, so do invest in membership to this organisations. This will give you access to updated care sheets, up to date research data, specific event information and most important, a lot of colleagues to get in touch with in case you need advice on your cases.
There’s not much gain, except of course personal gain, in being very good at your job if nobody knows about it. In order to keep the business going one should make sure existing and prospective clients know about the range of services the clinic is offering.
You could periodically inform clients about any new equipment purchased and about what training your staff has undertaken. This will not only act as a “refresher” on what your service offering is but will also spread by word of mouth. You may be surprised to find how much impact the users of specialised forums have when a new exotic pet owner is looking for a knowledgeable vet. Make sure your name appears there, next to a good review of course.
Always remember to keep your colleagues informed about your services. Referral cases are a good source of income and a great way of practicing your specialist skills. Organizing open days and continual professional development courses will keep you on the radar of colleagues and clients alike, they should know that you exist and are doing well.
An unusual pet can easily become a news subject and this can get you free advertising. Don’t be shy, let the world know about your successful cases, consider local newspapers, TV and radio as well as social media.
- Stay at the top
Don’t ever stop learning.
Exotic animal medicine is developing fast, trends are changing and new protocols are being elaborated at an incredible speed. Refresh your library (very important: change your Carpenter’s Exotic Formulary with any new edition) periodically.
Re-evaluate your protocols every year, attend refresher courses, learn new surgical procedures, and stay updated. When you are the best you can be, you have no competition other than yourself.
Enjoy your success!
Corresponding authors :
Dr. Vladislav Zlatinov, Dr. Aglika Yordanova (Clinical pathologist), Dr. Nadejda Petrova (Anaesthetist)
Central Veterinary Clinic
Chavdar Mutafov str, 25 B, Sofia, Bulgaria
Rib tumors are uncommon in small animals. Osteosarcoma (OSA) is the most common (73%). Other types include chondrosarcoma (CSA), fibrosarcoma (FSA), hemangiosarcoma (HSA).
Rib tumors tend to occur in large breed dogs and the usual location is in the costo-chondral junction. Radiographic changes include lysis, sclerosis, or a mixture of lytic and blastic patterns. Intra-thoracic invasion of adjacent pericardium and lung lobes is relatively common, so CT scans are recommended to determine the location and extent of the tumor, planning of the surgical resection, and clinical staging for pulmonary metastasis1.
Chest wall resection is recommended treatment for the rib tumors 2. The surgical approach is the identical to intercostal thoracotomy, but caudal and cranial margins include a minimum of one intercostal space and rib, while ventral and dorsal margins should be a minimum of 2 cm from the tumor. Because of the large defect present, a need for autogenous and/or prosthetic reconstruction techniques is often necessary. Autogenous reconstruction techniques include the latissimus dorsi and external abdominal oblique muscles, and diaphragmatic advancement following resection of caudal rib tumors 3. Prosthetic reconstruction with non-absorbable polypropylene mesh, alone or in combination with autogenous techniques, is recommended for large defects. Autogenous reconstruction is preferred in humans because of a high complication rate associated with prosthetic mesh, such as infection and herniation. These complications are rarely reported in dogs following chest wall reconstruction with prosthetic mesh. Up to six ribs can be resected without affecting respiratory function in dogs 4.
Thoracic surgery in small animals is considered a painful procedure, resulting in alterations in pulmonary function and respiratory mechanics. Appropriate analgesic protocol may improve outcomes. Systemic administration of opioids and NSAIDs, intercostal and intrapleural blocks, and epidural analgesia are among the most common options for pain management after thoracic surgery in small animals 5.
A 10 years old male pitbull dog, weighting 24 kg was presented to us. The owners had been to three veterinary consultations before, the chief complaint being lameness at the right front limb. The cause was suggested to be a “lump” on the right thoracic wall. Based on an X- rays study and clinical examination, so far the owners were discouraged to pursue the further surgical treatment, because the procedure was supposed to be too aggressive and painful. The dog was prescribed palliative NSAIDs therapy.
We did a thorough clinical exam, revealing normal behaviour, good over-all body condition; signs of multiple joint arthritic diseases were found- elbows and stifles decreased ROM and capsules thickening. On the right cranio- ventral thoracic wall we found protruding, egg- size oval mass, widely and firmly connected to the rib cage (Fig.1).
Radiograph of the right elbow revealed advanced elbow arthritic changes.
Additionally, orthogonal thoracic radiographs (+ oblique one) were done, demonstrating large infiltrating mass, with heterogenous lytic and proliferative mineralised pattern, originating at the costo-chondral junction of the 4-th rib (Fig.2).
A fine needle aspiration was done and evaluated (Fig.3).
The pathologist remarks:
“Clusters of fusiform mesenchymal cells, with obvious signs of malignancy- pleomorphism, increased anisokaryosis and anisocytsosis, basophilia, multinucleated cells . Occasional osteoclasts, macrophages and neutrophils were noted. No osteoid/chondroid was found in the examined material. The tumor was classified as malignant mesenchymal– fibrosarcoma, chondrosarcoma or osteosarcoma.”
A computer tomographic study was accomplished and the mass’s margins investigated carefully. A mineralised tumor centre (from the distal third of the 4-th rib) was found; also soft tissue aggressive expansion in the neighbour intercostal spaces -3-th and 5-th. Typically for the chest wall masses, there was an eccentric growth- the 2/3 of the mass volume protruding into the throracic cavity, extruding the pulmonary parenchyma and contacting the heart on the right side. No lung metastases were noticed on the scans (Fig.4, video 1).
Complete blood work was done and found normal. Including normal Alkaline Phosphatase level, considered favorable prognostic factor.
After a discussion with the owner, a decision for surgical resection was made.
Premedication with Medetomidine and Butorphanol was used, followed by Propofol induction. The maintenance was sustained by Isoflurane and Ketamin drop in the fluid sack.
Peri-operative analgesia, Anesthetists remarks
The thoracic wall resection is considered very painful procedure, so a corresponding analgesic strategy was built and applied. A continuous post operative segmental epidural analgesia application was provided. T13—L1 epidural puncture (by Tuohy needle), was done and an epidural set catheter (B. Braun) was inserted till the 5-th thoracic vertebra(Fig.5-6). The catheter was safely attached and maintained for 48 h post op, during the patient’s stay in the clinic. The agent delivered through, was Levobupivacain (0,5 %), one 1ml every 4 hours, including pre op.
After the mass removal, a soaker catheter was sutured at the ribs resection edges; another one was applied between the skin and muscle flap, covering the defect. Both catheters were connected to an elastomeric pump (B. Braun), delivering locally 5 ml/h of 1% Lidocain for 96h (including outpatient period) post operatively.
The rationale behind additional soaker catheters was to suppress maximally the nociception transfer, including the sensation through the non- blocked cervical spinal nerves. Also we contemplated- removal of epidural catheter at the time of discharge, but leaving the delivery pump, providing residual local analgesia.
Cimicoxib (Cimalgex) was prescribed for 10 days post op. No opioids were used in the recovery period.
Surgical protocol (surgeon remarks)
After macroscopic mapping and drawing, a rectangular shaped, full thickness (skin, muscle, ribs and pleura) en bloc excision was done (Fig.7). This included partial ostectomy of 3-th, 4-th and 5-th ribs. Caudal intercostal thoracotomy was performed first, permitting evaluation of the intrathoracic extent of the tumor. Special attention was applied at the proximal approach to ligate safely the three intercostal arteries and veins. No visceral lung pleural or pericardium adhesion were noticed. Careful electrocautery haemostasis was done at the muscles’ cut edges. The removed mass was macroscopically evaluated for “clean” margins, and a reconstruction of the large defect was preceded (Fig.8). A double (folded) polypropylene mesh (SURGIPRO®TYCO) was sutured to the wound edges, using simple interrupted pattern (3-0 PDS material). A latissimus dorsi muscle flap was advanced to cover and “seal” the defect (Fig.9). The air content was evacuated with aspirator on the final closure; no chest drain was left in the thorax. Two soaker catheters were applied in the wound; the skin was closed by double pedicle advanced flap technique and simple interrupted pattern (Fig.10).
Post operative care and follow up
The dog’s chest was loosely bandaged; the elastomeric pump and epidural catheter were securely fixed to the body(Fig.11). I.v. antibiotics and fluid support was continued for 24 hours post op.
Provided very effective local analgesia- the dog revealed excellent comfort immediately after the surgery (video 2,3,4). We paid special attention to any pain signs- excessive vocalization, hyper-excitement, panting, tachycardia, behavior abnormalities, etc. No such were present and the patient started eating the next day after surgery; it was discharged 48 after the procedure. No ambulation deficits were seen with the Levobupivacain application. The elastomeric pump was removed on the 4-th day. Mild to moderate serosanguineous discharges from the wound were present for 10 days after the surgery.
On the 14 days recheck the wound was healed and the sutures were removed; the patient showed excellent clinical recovery (Fig.12).
The surgical excision is considered the first treatment of choice for malignant rib tumors, but a question about the long term prognosis and rationale behind an aggressive surgery could be raised. As mentioned above, the most common rib tumors are osteosarcomas (OS) and chondrosarcomas(CS). They have quite different prognosis- OS is rarely cured, whereas CS could be cured with surgery alone. Dogs with osteosarcoma that have elevation of the Alkaline phosphatase level have a much lower median survival times 6. Chemotherapy significantly increases the survival of dogs with rib OS- from a few months to about 9.5 months. Roughly survival time is increased 4 times with chemotherapy + radical resection, compared to surgery alone. Chondrosarcomas have a very good chance to be cured with surgery alone with median survival times exceeding 3 years. The other common type -fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma have intermediate metastatic potential between the other two. Survival times ranging from 120-450 days with chest wall resection alone 7.
Dealing with motivated owners, a patient in good general health, with normal AP, and need for moderately large rib case resection size, we found good indications for tumor removal without preliminary histological verification. We suggested acceptable life expectancy in the worst tumor type scenario (the option for chemotherapy was available). While respecting previous vets’ opinions, we took into consideration the stated in the literature fact that dogs tolerate removal of a large portion of the rib cage very well.
Despite all this encouraging decision making facts, we would have fought ethical issues in a scenario we weren’t able to provide sufficient peri-operative analgesia of the patient. Except the ethical side, the pain associated with thoracoectomies may have potentially lethal consequence for the patient cardiopulmonary status after surgery. A thoracoectomy requires a very painful excision, involving multiple muscle layers, rib resection, and continuous motion as the patient breathes. Sub-optimal management of pain has major respiratory consequences. Inspiration is limited by pain, which leads to reflex contraction of expiratory muscles, and consecutively to diaphragmatic dysfunction (decreased functional residual capacity and atelectasis, hypoxemia).Treatment of acute post-thoracotomy pain is particularly important not only to keep the patient comfortable but also to minimize pulmonary complications 8.
In the veterinary literature there are suggestion for various types of analgesia provided after thoracotomies- intercostal blocks, intrapleural lidocaine, incisional pain soaker catheters9; systemic agents as NSAIDs, opioids, NMDA antagonists (ketamine),etc. There is plenty of space for objective evidence based studies, proving the best analgesic protocol, yet.
In the presented case we applied sophisticated but uncommon noxious stimulus blockage strategy. The thoracic epidural catheter insertion is technically demanding procedure but it is very powerful tool for both intra and post operative pain control 10. Even more, it allows even preemptive pain blockage. So-called preemptive analgesia is intended to prevent the establishment of central sensitization caused by surgery induced injuries. Evidence from basic research has indicated that analgesic drugs are more effective if administered before, rather than after, a noxious stimulus. Human studies report that the area of post-thoracotomy pain is more discrete and largely restricted to the site of surgery. Hence, any benefit of preemptive epidural analgesia is, theoretically, more apparent in thoracic surgery than in abdominal surgery.
It is interesting if the present tumor or the arthritic elbow lesions caused the primary clinical sign- front right leg lameness. Lameness of the forelimb had been described with costal tumors, located within the first four ribs 11. Possible mechanism is pain translation to the nerves to the limb, mechanical interference with movement or invasion into the muscles of the forelimb. After the surgical excision the owners reported lameness disappearance, supporting the tumor as the real cause.
Excision of malignant chest wall masses could be very successful. It is feasible to achieve clean cut margins; large residual wall defects could be managed with combined reconstruction techniques. Never mind the aggressive character of the procedure, an excellent patient comfort should be achieved with a combination of thoracic epidural and local wound nerve nociception blockage, as in this case.
Just before the submission of this case report the histopathology result was received. It concluded:
Mass, originating from spindeloid to pleomorphic cells, highly cellular. The cells were round, organized in bundles and solid formations. There was moderate to marked anisokaryosis and anisocytsosis; mitotic figures frequently present, multifocally there is osetoid production.
Diagnosis: Malignant pleomorphic neoplasia, suspicious for osteosarcoma.
Long term prognosis:
In the case, no local recurrence is expected because of the wide margins excision. Generally the median survival time (MST) for dogs with rib OSA is 90-120 days with surgery alone and 240-290 days with surgery and adjunctive chemotherapy, and death is caused by distant metastases. Age, weight, sex, number of ribs resected, tumor volume, and total medication dose do not influence survival disease-free interval 12.
A chemotherapy protocol is already being contemplated:
Carboplatin 300mg/sq.m.; 4 treatments q 21 days (Withrow and MacEwen Small Animal Clinical Oncology,2007)
If available, the long term result and the survival time of the patient will be followed and shared through the journal.
Dr. Vladislav Zlatinov
Central Veterinary Clinic
Chavdar Mutafov str, 25 B, Sofia, Bulgaria
Referring vet: Dr. Jordan Jordanov
Most commonly the pneumothorax in small animals is caused by trauma 1. It could be open or closed; closed traumatic pneumothorax is often the result of blunt trauma (HRS, automobile accidents, etc.). The mechanism includes a chest compressed against the closed glottis, the airway or lung parenchyma can rupture with resultant air leakage.
When there is no evidence of trauma, air leakage from the lung parenchyma is termed spontaneous pneumothorax. This is relatively rare but potentially lethal condition in small animals. The most common underlying causes are pulmonary bulla, subpleural blebs/emphysema (68% of dogs); neoplasia (11% of dogs); migrating plant seeds; pulmonary abscesses; feline chronic allergic bronchitis; chronic pneumonia; heartworm disease. Siberian Huskies and large chested breeds are overrepresented for the condition2.
In internal pneumothorax, the trachea, bronchi, alveolar ducts could be the source of leakage. The alveolar-pleural fistula (APF) is a communication between the pulmonary parenchyma distal to a segmental bronchus and the pleural space, while a broncho- pleural fistula (BPF) is a communication between a main stem, lobar, or segmental bronchus and the pleural space3.This distinction is important because the treatment for the two types could vary. Indeed in the veterinary literature there are not too many publications, regarding incidence, therapy, etc. of APF.
Six years old, large (40kg) mix breed dog was presented to us with clinical signs of respiratory distress. The difficult breathing had started suddenly 48 hours ago. The referring veterinarian had done primary diagnostics- chest X -rays and blood work. The radiographs had revealed bilateral pneumothorax; thoracocentesis has been accomplished several times, every time evacuating more than one liter of air. The owner didn’t report any primary trauma. The day before the onset, the dog was treated with parasite prevention drug-Ivermectin 300 ug/kg , s.c.
Our clinical examination revealed anxiety, tachypnea- frequent (120/min) shallow breathing, distant breath sounds bilaterally, mild fever- 39.5. The patient was over- all hemodynamically stable- normal mucous membranes, strong femoral pulse.
After sedation with Butorphanol + Midazolam (i.v.), thoracocentesis was done at the right 10-th intercostal space. Almost two liters of air were removed.
Orthogonal chest radiographs (just after the centesis), revealed residual pneumothorax, left lung lobe collapse (atelectasis), right shifted cardiac silhouette (Fig.1). Pleural fissures were detectable, but no significant pleural effusion was visible; the lung pattern showed mild signs of diffuse alveolo-interstitial pattern, more pronounced in the right hilus area.
A serological Diroffilaria test (Anigen, Bionote, Seul, Korea), done by the referral veterinarian went out positive. Nevertheless, the disease was not confirmed by us- the SNAP 4Dx Test (Idexx comp.) and microfilaria blood smear tests came out negative. Larvo/ovoscopic test (done 6 days later) was negative.
Working algorithm Within the next 8 hours, several thoracocentesis and air evacuations were accomplished, demonstrating the significant air leakage present. The underlying cause was not evident- a spontaneous rupture of a lung lesion (bulla) was supposed. A bronchoscopic or thoracoscopic diagnostic options were not available. A CT study could be used but needed transport to another facility, which was evaluated as too risky. Because of the lack of any signs of lung sealing within 56 hours, an open chest surgical exploration was planned and accomplished.
The patient was pre medicated with Acepromazine/ Butorphanol combination- i.m., low range doses. After 10 minutes of hyper oxygenation the patient was induced in anesthesia rapidly (Diazepam/ Propofol) and intubated as fast as possible. The maintenance was achieved by Isoflurane gas (2-3%) and Ketamine drop. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 15 cm H20 ventilation was applied to the patient, using anesthetic ventilator (Midmark Matrix). The hemodynamic parameters- saturation, pulse rate, blood pressure was closely monitored during the whole surgery; no anesthesiological incident was met. The PEEP was adjusted ( up to 25 cm H20), accordingly to the desired lung hyperinflation after chest opening.
A standard ventral median sternotomy approach was used. The sternum was osteotomised (with oscillating saw) in the mid line – from the 3-th to 7-th sternebra; later the approach was extended further caudally , leaving intact the end part of the xiphoid process. Two automatic wound retractors were placed cranially and caudally, achieving excellent approach to all chest structures.
A thorough cavity inspection was accomplished. No free fluid or obvious air leakage was found. Chest walls and heart had a normal surface and structure. The lungs had a normal surface, structure and inflation except one collapsed lobe area. The pathology was found in the caudal part of the left cranial lung lobe- atelectasis , with lack of parenchyma inflation. On the dorsal surface there were three small (1 mm) confined lesions areas with serosal surface defects,filled with granulation tissue (Video 1)
A bubble test was accomplished- flooding the chest with warm sterile saline and searching for bubbles during positive-pressure ventilation (up to 40 cm H20). Surprisingly no source of air leakage, including the lesion area, was found.
A second careful and thorough lung exploration was done, but did not reveal any other areas in question. Finding the visible pathology , we proceeded towards partial lobectomy of the distal collapsed caudal part of the cranial left lobe. One relatively big bronchus and blood vessel were encountered proximally and ligated individually. The resected area was first sutured with continuous overlapping suture (3-0 PDS). The edge of the incision is over sewn in continuous pattern (4-0 PDS). The sutured sites were tested for leakage again. The lung tissue was separated for histology examination.
Single chest tube was placed before thoracic cavity closure. The thoracotomy was closed routinely, using several full cerclage wires, compressing tightly the osteotomised stenebrae
Postoperative care and follow up
Peri operative analgesia was provided using multimodal approach:
NSAID (Meloxicam s.c.) – pre and post op
Transdermal Fentanyl patch 100 μg (applied 4 h pre op),
MLK (Morphine, Lidocaine, Ketamin) i.v. infusion for 10 hours post op
Local pleural infiltration- 20 ml Levobupivacaine (2,5 mg/ml) in the chest tube every 6 hours.
Continuous air suction was not applied but the chest tube was tested and air evacuated every 2 hours.
The patient showed fast anesthetic recovery with good pain control after the procedure (comfortable laying in sternal recumbence).
The air presence was monitored carefully. After 2 hours of negative finding, an abundant air accumulation started, just as the preoperative status. With the frequent air evacuation, the next 24 h the patient was respiratory stable with occasion onsets of tachypnea. The chest tube was closely examined, and found adequately airtight.
Significant air leakage (>500 ml/h) was appreciated in the next 24h after the surgery, with no tendency of rate deceleration. This let us look for a major broncho-pleural fistula with hidden /complex localization. We used an uncommon diagnostic technique- contrast bronchography. After induction in short light anesthesia, the dog was intubated and 3,5 ml Omnipaque (Iohexol 350 mg/ml) were injected through the endotracheal tube, with the head in elevated position. The procedure went uneventfully; the X rays, following 2 minutes of Ambu bag hyperventilation revealed normal bronchial tree, without noticeable pathology(Fig.3).
Second explorative surgery
Considering, that we didn’t adequately addressed the air leakage, and after a fair discussion with the owner we reluctantly decided to go for a second explorative surgery.
The same anesthetic protocol was used; we approached the cavity through the recent thoracotomy wound. The lobectomy site was explored, showing perfect sealing and early signs of fibrin formation on the edge. The chest tube intercostal passage looked smooth and nice without soft tissue laceration.
This time, all the lung lobes showed normal inflation and again a frustrating lack of any leakage signs. Special attention was payed on to explore the obscure hilus lung areas. Two saline/bubble test were accomplished without result. At the end (after 30 minutes exploration) an air leakage was demonstrated by an accidental left lung lobe maneuvering, while the chest still filled with saline. We found a single, small (0,5 mm) , barely visible, smooth margins (obviously epithelised) opening on the dorsal surface of the cranial left lung lobe (Fig.4 ). Based on the macroscopic findings we diagnosed alveolar-pleural fistula, having stealthy dynamic characteristics- emissive only in specific lung lobe positions, and dorsal body recumbence not facilitating it (look at the discussion section)
Follow up and result
Immediate cease of the air accumulation was evident after the second surgery (Fig.6). Despite the fast recovery, the dog was closely monitored in clinic for 3 days, afterward the chest tube was removed and the dog discharged for home care.
The histological report that came later was suggesting not specific granulomatous lung parenchyma changes, with no causative agent (parasites/larva) present in the tested tissue.
In the presented case report multiple discussions could be initiated. They may regard the possible underlying cause of the pneumothorax, the best diagnostic tools for APF, and the best treatment – conservative vs. surgical, sternal vs. intercostal approach.
In our case we were able to confirm the mechanism of air leakage but we couldn’t reveal the exact primary cause of the lesions. Considering the anamnesis (deteriorating after ivermectin treatment) and the morphology of the lesions- small localized, discreet , we supposed parasitic) migration that had caused alveolar-visceral pleural fistulation. The adult or larva forms of some nematodes may have caused this.
There are numerous evidences that confirm that D. immitis could cause spontaneous pneumothorax (sometimes lethal) 4,5. There are case reports of a Angiostrongylus vasorum causing massive lung lesion and spontaneous pneumothorax6. Ascaris larvae invasion was reported as a cause of spontaneous pneumothorax in humans7.
Despite we suggest parasitic etiology, it is beyond our knowledge and the scope of the report to evaluate the morbidity potential of the mentioned or other (Capillaria, Oslerus) parasites. Nevertheless the cause, our retrospective interpretation of the lesions showed these: the fistula canals in the caudal part of the cranial lobe (found at first surgery) had collapsed, causing no serious air leakage, whereas the cranial fistula (found at the second surgery) was covered with epithelium, preventing it’s successful sealing and creating an air valve. It was interesting that despite its small size the APF was capable of causing serious leakage, with no tendency for healing. Indeed, the small size and the normal local serosal surface around made it difficult to distinguish during both surgeries. Another misleading factor was it’s dorsal localization. With the patient laying in dorsal recumbence, a leakage intermittently blocked by compression of the fistula against the thoracic wall was suggested by us (Fig.8-9 ). This could have been the reason for negative bubble tests- no air leakage, unless lobe manipulation and lifting it from the thoracic wall.
In the presented case, we didn’t had the chance to use advanced imaging diagnostics, so we relied on surgical exploration as diagnostic and therapeutic option, as recommended in many veterinary sources. We were able to manage the case successfully, but met some difficulties and a revision surgery was needed. It is interesting to suggest how useful could be the advanced imaging tools in the diagnose of APF. Increased accuracy (compared to chest radiography) in finding pathologic lung bullas/ blebs have been proven by studies8.9. One study comparing the accuracy of radiography and CT for bulla and bleb identification in dogs with spontaneous pneumothorax found: radiography to be accurate in 16% of cases and CT to be accurate in 80% of cases. In our case, such circumscribed , air filled structure was missing, so it is questionable if the small air leakage source (APF) could be precisely identified. Possibly, just suggestive signs of gross hypoventilation of the cranial left lung could have been found.
Our suggestion is that a bronchoscopy could also be inconclusive, dealing with a fistulation of small alveolar duct, not accessible for examination from the segmental bronchi. It is interesting if a thoracoscopy study could find such small APF. In a 2003 study,10,11 spontaneous pneumothorax, caused by bullas was successfully diagnosed and treated in three dogs using thoracoscopy,
An argument for a more consistent conservative approach- constant air evacuation system for longer period (>4 days), may be raised. Knowledge about potential causes of spontaneous pneumotorax is important factor when considering surgical versus nonsurgical management. We based our clinical decision on several reports that show the advantages of the more aggressive surgical management in canine patients . In one study, recurrence rates and mortality rates for dogs with spontaneous pneumothorax treated surgically (3% and 12%, respectively) were lower than for dogs treated conservatively (50% and 53%, respectively) 1,12.
The feline patients look more prone to conservative management (first choice treatment) of spontaneous pneumothorax, because of prevailing inflammatory ethnologies 13.
It is interesting to mention that in human patients there are publications14,15 for successfully treatment of APF by use of blood patch, synthetic hydrogel and valves, delivered endobronchialy. Watanabe spigots (IBV® valves -Olympus Corp., Japan) are specifically designed for reducing air leaks by means of total occlusion of the affected bronchus. For now, no such interventional option has been reported in the veterinary sources.
The surgical approach that we used -a median sternotomy, may be considered as more aggressive and painful than the alternative- intercostal thoracotomy. The median sternotomy is our preferred choice in such cases because it gives a vast access to all lung lobes and other thoracic structures. There are evidences that in dogs, pain, the degree of cardiopulmonary impairment, and complication rates with between two approaches do not differ 16,17, 18. In humans, median sternotomy causes less postoperative discomfort than intercostal thoracotomy19.
We recognize that a good pain control is a critical factor , when dealing with thoracotomy patients. Post operatively pain may prevent full thoracic wall excursion, reducing the ventilation and causing hypoxemia20. Pain results in catecholamine release, which contributes to vasoconstriction, decreased tissue perfusion and arrhythmias. A multimodal medical approach was used in the case providing haemodynamic stability of the patient within two open chest surgeries.
We would like to stress out the importance of following the medical algorithms in managing such spontaneous pneumothorax cases. In rare cases, the “culprit” / the underlying cause, could not be easily identified even if we know it is there. Still a persistence and systematic approach could be rewarded even in perplexed, frustrating scenarios
- Puerto DA, Brockman DJ, Lindquist C, et al: Surgical and nonsurgical management of and selected risk factors for spontaneous pneumothorax in dogs: 64 cases (1986– 1999). J Am Vet Med Assoc 220:1670, 2002.
A. MARTIN CORDERO
*VETDERM: Dermatologia Veterinaria Especializada, Guadalajara, Mexico
Assistant professor Department of Veterinary Medicine, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Biologicas y Agropecuarias, University of Guadalajara; Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico
A male non neutered 9 year-old Akita was presented with alopecic focal crusty lesions on rear and front limbs. Hemorrhagic lesions were observed on the front limb and history of tick infestation was provided by the owner. Ulcerative and nodular lesions were present on the right lateral aspect of the face. Skin scraping revealed presence of Demodex injai. . ELISA rapid testing IDEXX 4DX was performed to confirm tick borne disease revealing positivity to Anaplasma spp. Skin biopsies were taken from the face and abdomen revealing large atypical lymphocytes with epitheliotrophism consistent with epitheliotrophic lymphoma. The patient was presented one month later with pleural effusion, euthanasia was performed.
A male non-neutered 9 year old Akita was presented with history of focal crusty lesions. Due to his geographic origin from the North of Mexico close to the border with the United States and comments from the owner about tick infestation an ELISA SNAP 4dx plus test (Idexx) was performed.
SNAP test was positive to Anaplasma spp.
CBC showed no abnormalities.
Cutaneous lesions observed include, crusty and erythematous lesions in the abdominal regions, crusts, erosion and ulceration in the muzzle and petechial and ecchymosis in the front left limb.
A deep skin scraping was performed revealing the presence of long body Demodex compatible with Demodex injai.
Treatment with weekly Doramectin at 0.5mg/kg was started in conjunction with Doxycycline at 10mg/kg per day.
After 5 weeks of treatment owner reported depression and decrease of food ingestion, also, the appearance of new lesions in the muzzle region. Physical examination show nodular and plaque erythematous formations in the face and ventral region.
Three biopsies were taken using a 6mm punch biopsy and sent to dermatopathological examination. Results of the biopsy showed large atypical lymphocytes with epitheliotrophism consistent with epitheliotrophic lymphoma.
Demodectic mange may appear in a juvenile or adult onset presentation, as well as generalized or localized form. Patients with adult presentation should be screened in search for underlying conditions. In most cases underlying conditions will not be found. In order to control the disease, primary cause should be treated and corrected1.
Correct approach to dermatological conditions include a well-detailed clinical history and diagnostic test according to lesions found. We should be aware of perform all the diagnostic dermatological test we need, du to the fact, there are several dermatosis associated with secondary factors or associated conditions.
1.- Mueller, R. S., Bensignor, E., Ferrer, L., Holm, B., Lemarie, S., Paradis, M., & Shipstone, M. A. (2012). Treatment of demodicosis in dogs: 2011 clinical practice guidelines. Veterinary Dermatology, 23(2), 86–e21
Soft palate and tonsil resection using PlasmaKnife dissector in dogs with brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome – A novel technique
Authors : Emil Ofner, DVM
Marina Barižon, DVM
Mario Grubišić, DVM
Silvijo Tarasić, Eng; OLYMPUS d.o.o. Zagreb
Small Animal Veterinary Clinic More, Šibenik, Croatia
Key words : Brachycephalic syndrome, PlasmaKnife
Brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome is chronic, repetitive and life threatening disorder and because of that it often requires immediate surgical intervention. In literature, there are many described surgical techniques to treat different aspects of brachycephalic syndrome. The soft palate and tonsil resection using Gyrus PlasmaKnife dissector is a novel technique which is in our opinion ideal for every veterinary practice.
Brachycephalic Obstructive Airway Syndrome (BOAS) is a complex chronic condition characterized by narrowing or collapse of the different airway passages. This disorder is hereditary and because of that associated with different breeds of dogs. Depending on general skull morphology dogs can have brachycephalic, mesaticephalic and dolichocephalic heads. Phenotypic selection in search for round heads and foreshortened nose in brachycephalic breeds of dogs resulted in loss of sagittal crest and a braincase longer than the facial bones. Rostral shortening of the skull in brachycephalic breeds, without paralell reduction in the associated soft tissues, results in disproportion causing abnormal airway resistance. These primary anatomic defects lead to secondary changes over time (Table 1). At the time of presentation, clinical sings can be mild, moderate or severe. All moderate and severe cases are accompanied with sleep difficulties, coughing, dyspnoea, gagging, retching and syncope. While moderate and severe cases need prompt surgical intervention only mild cases can be managed conservatively.
Patients and methods
Last decade, there is a huge increase of pure breed dogs and breed related disorders in Dalmatia. Brachycephalic breeds which have round heads resembled those of human infants are becoming very popular. Among breeds presented with BOAS in our clinic overrepresented breeds are Pugs, French Bulldogs and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels.
Most patients in time of presentation have serious and life threatening symptoms. Because of that diagnostic procedure needs to be done quickly with skilled team. In Veterinary Clinic More all patients with BOAS are put under general anesthesia, intubated and after radiographic examination, laryngo-tracheo-bronchoscopy procedure with or without rhinoscopy is done. After a complete examination of upper and lower respiratory pathways we prepare surgical planning. In almost all situations we do a soft palate resection. If needed, vertical or horizontal external nares resection, tonsillectomy or everted laryngeal saccules excision is done also.
To clearly and precisely visualize the surgical site is critical in all surgical procedures involved in BOAS. Because of that, all patients should be positioned in sternal recumbency with maxilla resting on the perch and the mandible should be suspended by rolled gauze ventrally (Picture 1 ). If soft palate resection is going to be done all tissues extending mid to the caudal aspect of tonsillar crypt should be excised. The soft palate is grasped with Allis clamps, pulled rostrally and dissected with PlasmaKnife dissector (Picture 2). If tonsils are enlarged in order to clear out as much space as possible we also do unilateral or bilateral tonsillectomy.
Though in available literature, there are lots of papers about soft palate dissection we didn’t find anything about using PlasmaKnife dissector for soft palate and tonsil resection. Traditionally resection is done with sharp dissection using Metzenbaum scissors or monopolar electrocautery. Other reported techniques include bipolar sealing devices (LigaSure), laser or harmonic scalpel. Surgery time for soft palate resection was about 12 minutes for sharp dissection, and about 5 minutes for laser surgery.
PlasmaKnife dissector is triode-tipped bipolar instrument (Picture 3) which attaches to the Gyrus G3 WorkStation generator (Picture 4). It uses PlasmaCision technology that enables both simultaneous and sequential hemostatic sealing and cutting. PlasmaCision leverages the electricaly conductive properties of tissue fluid to form a tightly defined low temperature plasma field over the active pole of the triode tip. The instrument has two main modes of operation, PlasmaCision cut phase and pure coagulation phase. In cut phase a low-temperature plasma field precisely divides tissue and coagulates blood vessels. In pure coagulation phase tip delivers controlled radio frequency energy for sealing larger blood vessels ( Pictures 5 and 6). Tip design has both convex and flat surfaces. The convex part for pin point accurate dissection and flat surface provides maximum tissue contact for effective hemostasis along with a suction channel for blood and vapor (Picture 7). Switching between modes is done by foot pedal.
Surgical time for soft palate resection with PlasmaKnife dissector was average 63 seconds and 44 seconds for unilateral tonsillectomy. Realized time was about 10 times faster in comparison to traditional sharp dissection and 5 times faster comparing to laser surgery. Production of smoke and vapors was minimal and suction channel was not needed. Postoperatively, all dogs received local dexamethasone to reduce swelling (Picture 8). We didn’t have any postoperative complications.
PlasmaKnife dissector in combination with Gyrus G3 WorkStation generator is multi – functional instrument and provides versatility, efficiency, clean incisions, and hemostatic performance with minimal tissue damage.
Again, we are thankful to Mr. Silvijo Tarasić and Olympus d.o.o. Zagreb who recognized our enthusiasm and provided technical expertise that greatly assisted us in implementing new technology improvements in our practice.
Dr Vesela Elenkova – master scintific in veterinary ophthalmology and surgery, veterinary clinic “Eskovet”– Bulgaria, Sofia
Case presentation :
A nine month female rabbit presented for a right eye lesion of two weeks duration. There was cataract on the same eye from birth. The referring veterinarian had prescribed a course of topical and systemic antibiotics but it continued to deteriorate. The eye was become very painful. The lesion appeared as a whitish-yellow mass into the hyperemic iris, slightly protruding into the anterior chamber. There was a mature cataract formation and the pupil was mydriatic with no response to light. The intraocular pressure (IOP) of the affected eye was 40. On the other was 11and it was not clamped. Fluorescein staining was negative for corneal lesions on both eyes. On the ultrasound examination there was no changes into the posterior segment of the affected eye.
There was only seen the hyperechogenic lens and the lesion in the iris. The rabbit was in pain when touched and didn’t want to eat well.
The patient history and appearance of the lesion were compatible with Encephalitozoon cuniculi-induced phacoclastic uveitis, and a tentative diagnosis was made. Other diagnostic defferentials included granuloma caused by Pasteurella or other bacterial infections, but they were unlikely considering cataract formation. Diagnostic included complete blood count, biochemical profile and serology testing.
The complete blood count and serum biochemical profile were within normal limits. The serum IgG-antibodies were not so high, but the IgM-antibodies indicate active infection in most cases. They bought are not indicative for utero infection.
We opted medical management. Except of the antibiotic therapy (with enrofloxacin PO and ciprofloxacin eye drops), the treatment was continued with fenbendazole at 20 mg/kg PO q24h for 28 days. Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic drops were prescribed to treat the uveitis and dorzolamide hydrochloride and timolol maleate drops for the eye pressure.
After 1-week recheck, the lesion had not changed, hyperemia was decreased, the IOP had become low – 6. There was no pain in the eye and the rabbit was doing well. The pupil still does not respond to light. After 2 weeks more, there was no change. The rabbit was in very good condition, but the vision in the right eye was compromised. Surgery might be necessary in the future depending on progression of the lesion, discomfort, and long term effects on the eye.
Encephalitozoon cuniculi (E. cuniculi) is a protozoal parasite. The parasite primarily affects rabbits, but cases have been reported in sheep, goats, dogs, cats, monkeys, guinea pigs, foxes, pigs and humans. It is a recognized zoonosis, but the zoonotic risk seems to be minimal to healthy individuals observing basic hygiene and to date there have been no reported cases of direct transmission from a rabbit to a human. However, those individuals who are immunosuppressed should implement strict hygiene and if possible avoid animals suspected or confirmed of being infected with E. cuniculi. Spores are shed in infected animals’ urine and transmission is usually by ingestion of contaminated food or water, or less commonly by inhalation of spores. Transmission from mother to young (transplacental) also occurs so that offspring are born infected. Most of the time, these organisms do not cause any obvious clinical disease. When E. cuniculi reach nerve tissue, rabbits can experience neurologic impairment, characterized by partial or complete paralysis, loss of coordination, seizures and head tilting.
E.cuniculi-assosiated phacoclastic uveitis is recognized in rabbits. There is no sex predisposition and the condition is often seen in younger rabbits. The mechanism by which the protozoan causes cataract is unclear in detail, but its lifecycle gives clues as to aetiopathogenesis of cataract. Passage of parasite between adult and young happen in utero with the parasite circulating in the fetus and sometimes ending up residing in the developing lens. The parasite migrates through the anterior lens capsule causing liberation of lens protein into the iris and anterior chamber and subsequent development of lens-induced uveitis, however, the posterior chamber usually remains unaffected. Normally this uveitis presents as a white-yellow mass in or near the pupil, sometimes with neovascularisation rendering it red or pink.
Serum ELISA antibody titers are helpful in making a diagnosis, however, serology only indicates past exposure and is not diagnostic of or necessarily correlated with clinical disease and infection. Immunofluorescence assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of tissue, urine and feces samples, as well as cerebrospinal fluid and removed lens material. These test looks for antigens, unlike serology, which test for antibodies. Simultaneous testing of IgG and IgM-specific antibodies can give an indication of infection status because IgM antibodies indicate active infection. If transmission is transplacental, bought IgG and IgM antibodies may be low.
In this cases treatment options include antiprotozoal medication, topical corticosteroids for the uveitis, surgery to remove the affected lens and granuloma if it is possible. The other option is enucleation, but it is not common if the eye is functional, because it is unlikely to eradicate the infection. In other cases the eye may atrophy without surgery (phthisis bulbi).
E.cuniculi-assosiated phacoclastic uveitis should be always suspected for rabbits presenting with ocular lesions and uveitis and oral antiprotozoal medications are always recommended, as affected rabbits may develop infection in the brain and encephalitis, that can lead to death.
Bogdan Alexandru VIŢĂLARU
University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 59 Mărăşti Blvd, District 1, 011464, Bucharest, Romania, Phone: +4021.318.25.64, Fax: + 4021.318.25.67, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Corresponding author email: email@example.com
A 11-year-old 3.1 kg, castrated, female Sphinx cat was referred to the Clinic of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Bucharest for acute onset vomiting, loss of appetite, anorexia, faintness, sharp breath, inability to exercise, oliguria and lethargy. Results from a complete blood (cell) count (CBC), serum chemical profile, and urinalysis submitted at that time were abnormal. The patient had hyperglycaemia (Glu-164mg/dl), acute renal failure (Crea-3.4mg/dl, BUN-117mg/dl) and acute liver failure (ALT-744U/L, TBIL-11.8mg/dl). The ALKP was 155U/L. The rectal temperature was 37,4ºC, the patient presented anaemic mucous membranes, mild dehydration (persistent skin fold thickness 2-3 seconds) and slight sensitivity to palpation in the renal lanyard. The established treatment consisted in peritoneal dialysis, rehydration and electrolyte balance, parenteral nutrition. We used PD4 peritoneal dialysis Dianeal 200 ml (1000ml / sqm). The patient was submitted to intravenous fluidotherapy with 5% Dextrose, Sodium Chloride 0.9 %, Aspatofort, Ondansetron, Metoclopramide and Duphalyte, CRI for 18 days. Abdominal ultrasound showed bile duct obstruction, abundant sludge in the gallbladder and mild modification in kidneys. Recommendation for oral treatment: Ipakitine bid, Azodyl bid and kidney diet food. The patient started to eat voluntary after 8 days of treatment. TBIL went up to 23.3mg/ml after the first 7 days and then started to decrease until it reached 0.9mg/dl at the end of the parenteral treatment. BUN and Creatinine values decreased to normal after the first 7 days of peritoneal dialysis and parenteral treatment. Peritoneal dialysis therapy plays an important role in renal failure in cats, especially in the elderly and weighing up to 10 kg. Elevated levels of creatinine and urea, hyperkalemia, hyper phosphatemia, or metabolic acidosis which do not yield to treatment can be solved using peritoneal dialysis. It also has a good effect in acute liver failure, cleaning the high levels of bilirubine.
Key words: peritoneal, dialysis, creatinine, urea, bilirubine
Peritoneal dialysis is a technique whereby infusion of dialysis solution into the peritoneal cavity is followed by a variable dwell time and subsequent drainage. During peritoneal dialysis, solutes and fluids are exchanged between the capillary blood and the intraperitoneal fluid through a biologic membrane, the peritoneum. Inadequate renal function leads to disturbance in the removal of the extra fluid and waste products. It removes the waste product and extra fluid from the body in renal failure in small animal practice. Peritoneal dialysis is more accessible, more affordable and easier to administer to the small animal patient. The most common indication for peritoneal dialysis in cats is acute renal failure (ARF). Peritoneal dialysis is an important therapeutic tool for mitigating clinical signs of uraemia and giving the kidneys time to recover in cats with acute kidney injury when conventional therapy is no longer effective (Bhatt et al., 2011).
Peritoneal dialysis is a modality of renal replacement therapy that is commonly used in human medicine for treatment of chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney failure. Peritoneal dialysis uses the peritoneum as a membrane across which fluids and uremic solutes are exchanged. In this process, dialysate is instilled into the peritoneal cavity and, through the process of diffusion and osmosis, water, toxins, electrolytes, and other small molecules, allowed to equilibrate (Cooper and Labato, 2011).
Peritoneal dialysis uses the peritoneum as a semi permeable layer for dialysis in which excess water, ions and solute in the blood pass through a semi permeable membrane to sterile solution which is known as dialysate via diffusion, osmosis and filtration. The three-layered peritoneal membrane consists of 1) themesothelium, a continuousmonolayer of flat cells, and their basement membranes; 2) a very compliant interstitium; and 3) the capillary wall, consisting of a continuous layer of mainly non-fenestrated endothelial cells, supported by a basement membrane. The mesothelial layer is considered to be less of a transport barrier to fluid and solutes, including macromolecules, than is the endothelial layer (Clough and Michel, 1988). Solute transport rates are assessed by the rates of their equilibration between the peritoneal capillary blood and dialysate. The ratio of solute concentrations in dialysate and plasma at specific times during the dwell signifies the extent of solute transport. Creatinine and urea clearance rates are the most commonly used indices of dialysis adequacy in clinical settings. Contributions of residual renal clearances are significant in determining the adequacy of dialysis (Flessner et al., 1985).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
An 11-year-old, 3.1 kg, castrated, female Sphinx cat was referred on November the 10th 2014 to the Clinic of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Bucharest for acute onset vomiting, loss of appetite, anorexia, faintness, sharp breath, inability to exercise, oliguria and lethargy. The physical examination revealed that the patient was anorexic, lethargic, had inability to exercise and a pronounced yellowish colour of skin and mucosa. Results from a complete blood cell count (CBC), serum chemical profile, and urinalysis submitted at that time were abnormal. The rectal temperature was 37.4ºC the patient presented slight sensitivity to palpation in the renal lanyard. Abdominal ultrasound showed mild modification in kidneys. The established treatment consisted in peritoneal dialysis, rehydration and electrolyte balance, parenteral nutrition. The patient was also submitted to intravenous fluidotherapy with 5% Dextrose, Sodium Chloride 0.9%, Aspatofort, Ondansetron, Metoclopramide and Duphalyte, CRI (Kushwaha and Singh, 2008).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
The patient was presented with abnormal blood biochemistry values in the first day. The patient had hyperglycemia – Glucose – 164 mg/dl (reference range 71-159 mg/dL), acute renal failure (Creatinine – 3.4 mg/dl – reference range 0.8-2.4 mg/dL, BUN – 117 mg/dl – reference range 16-36 mg/dL) and acute liver failure (ALT – 744 U/L – reference range 12-130 U/L, TBIL – 11.8 mg/dl – reference range 0.0-0.9 mg/dL). The ALKP was 155 U/L – reference range 14-111 U/L. The rectal temperature was 37.4ºC, the patient presented yellow anaemic mucous membranes, mild dehydration (persistent skin fold thickness 2-3 seconds) and slight sensitivity to palpation in the renal lanyard.
Abdominal ultrasound showed mild modification in kidneys. Recommendation for oral treatment: Ipakitine bid, Azodyl bid and kidney diet food.
The established treatment consisted in peritoneal dialysis, rehydration and electrolyte balance, parenteral nutrition. We used PD4 peritoneal dialysis Dianeal 200 ml (1000 ml/sqm) after placing the peritoneal catheter and after we managed to accommodate the patient with the peritoneal distension. Aseptic technique is imperative for the peritoneal dialysis (the use of surgical scrub and sterile surgical technique during catheter placement, as well as the use of sterile gloves, disinfectants, and the careful handling of dialysate fluids, catheters, and catheter line during dialysis), (Thornhill, 1981). The catheter enters the abdomen on midline at the level of the umbilicus and it is directed caudally and positioned in the lower pelvis (Figure 1).
The patient was also submitted to intravenous fluidotherapy with 5% Dextrose, Sodium Chloride 0.9%, Aspatofort, Ondansetron, Metoclopramide and Duphalyte, CRI.
On 11th of November 2014, the first day of treatment, the patient was presented with 37.5°C body temperature and we started administrating fluidotherapy IV in a volume set at 30 ml per hour twice a day: Dextrose 5% 15 ml, Sodium Chloride 0.9% 30 ml, Aspatofort 1 ml and subcutaneous Emeset 0.4 ml. Peritoneal dialysis was performed infusing 200 ml Dianeal PD4 (1000 ml/sqm) and we collected 130 ml after 4 hours of dwelling (Figure 2).
On the next two days we used the same protocol of peritoneal dialysis and we managed to recover this time 160-180 ml after 4 hours. The fluidotherapy remained the same, 30 ml/h and the temperature dropped at 37°C. On the 13th of November the blood tests showed: Glu 196 mg/dL (reference range 71-159 mg/dL), BUN decreased to 73 mg/dL (reference range 16-36 mg/dL), and the creatinine decreased at a normal value of 1.6 mg/dL (reference range 0.8-2.4 mg/dL). The transaminaze ALT and ALKP also decreased: ALT 509 U/L (reference range 12-130 U/L), ALKP 121 U/L (reference range 14-111 U/L) but the total bilirubin (TBIL) increased at 18.4 mg/dL (reference range 0.0-0.9 mg/dL). The pancreatic lipase dropped at 59 U/L (reference range 100-1400 U/L).
On November the 14th, the patient presented hyperthermia (40.2°C) and we performed a second abdominal ultrasound exam where we noticed the bile duct obstruction and abundant sludge in the gallbladder. The IV fluidotherapy was modified to: Dextrose 10% 7.5 ml, Sodium Chloride 0.9% 50 ml, Aspatofort 2 ml, Duphalyte 15 ml and Metoclopramide 0.3 ml twice a day. The same protocol of peritoneal dialysis have been used and we managed to recover 160-180 ml after 4 hours. We followed the same treatment for the next two days and the temperature decreased at 39.2°C. On the 16th of November we performed a complete blood count which shown granulocytosis and thrombocytosis which indicated mostly an infection corroborated with a kidney disease. The following days the temperature dropped at 38.4°C and we administered, at a constant-rate of infusion of 20 ml per hour for 12 hours per day, Dextrose 10% 30 ml, Sodium Chloride 0.9% 200 ml, Aspatofort 8 ml, Duphalyte 15 ml and Metoclopramide 2 ml.
On the 18th we run biochemistry blood tests and the results were quite remarkable: BUN, creatinine and glucose came back to normal reference rates. Glu 120 mg/dL (reference range 71-159 mg/dL), BUN decreased to 33 mg/dL (reference range 16-36 mg/dL), and the creatinine maintained at a normal value of 2.0 mg/dL (reference range 0.8-2.4 mg/dL). The only parameters which remain high were ALT, TBIL and GGT. ALT was 469 U/L (reference range 12-130 U/L), TBIL decreased to 5.8 mg/dL (reference range 0.0-0.9 mg/dL) and GGT decreased to 10 U/L (referance range 0-1 U/L). The same protocols of peritoneal dialysis have been used and we managed to recover 180 ml after 4 hours.
We followed the same treatment for the next four days and the temperature went back to a normal value of 38.4°C. On the 21st of November we run biochemistry blood tests and the ALT decreased to 387 U/L (reference range 12-130 U/L), TBIL decreased to 3.5 mg/dL (reference range 0.0-0.9 mg/dL) and GGT decreased to 8 U/L (reference range 0-1 U/L). The same protocols of peritoneal dialysis have been used and we managed to recover 180 ml after 4 hours. On the 21st of November, our patient presented appetite for the first time and eat voluntary. From this moment it started to eat every two hours renal diet and drink by herself. We decided to stop the peritoneal dialysis, the peritoneal catheter was removed and dialysis was discontinued. The patient’s condition has improved significantly (Table 1).
We followed the same venous treatment for the next seven days and the temperature maintained at a normal value of 38.4°C. On the 28th of November we run biochemistry blood tests and BUN was 46 mg/dL (reference range 16-36 mg/dL) and all the other parameters maintained in normal ranges of value. The patient’s condition has improved significantly
Parameter 10.11 13.11 18.11 21.11 28.11
(71-159 mg/dL) 164 196 120 129 94
(16-36 mg/dL) 117 73 33 34 46
(0.8-2.4 mg/dL) 3.4 1.6 2.0 1.7 1.4
(12-130 U/L) 744 509 469 367 109
(0-1 U/L) 0 15 10 8 0
(0.0-0.9 mg/dL) 11.8 18.4 5.8 3.5 0.9
We decided to discontinue the venous treatment and we recommended oral treatment: Ipakitine bid, Azodyl bid and kidney diet food.
In comparison with the literature, the decrease in BUN and creatinine were quite remarkable, the BUN decreasing from 117 mg/dL to 33 mg/dL in eight days and the Creatinine from 3.4 mg/dL to 1.6 mg/dL in three days.
Peritoneal dialysis therapy plays an important role in renal failure in cats, especially in the elderly and weighing up to 10 kg. Elevated levels of creatinine and urea, hyperkalemia, hyper phosphatemia, or metabolic acidosis which do not yield to treatment can be solved using peritoneal dialysis. It also has a good effect in acute liver failure, cleaning the high levels of bilirubine.
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Cooper, R. L. and Labato, M. A., 2011. Peritoneal dialysis in veterinary medicine. 41(1):91-113.
Flessner, M. F., Dedrick, R. L. and Schultz, J. S., 1985. Exchange of macromolecules between peritoneal cavity and plasma. Am J Physiol ; 248: 15.
Kushwaha, R., Singh, N., 2008. Peritoneal dialysis în animals – A review. The Internet Journal of Veterinary Medicine. Volume 7 Number 1.
Stojimirovici, B.; Trbojevic-Stankovic, J., 2007. Animal models în peritoneal dyalisis, Scand. J. La. Anim, Sci. Vol. 34, No 4
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Dr Krasimira Kodjanikolova, DVM, Mr Sc Imaging diagnostic
Veterinary Clinic NOVA, sofia,Bulgaria
Ferret Sunny, 5 years old, castrated
The feret presented at the clinic apatic,not active from 1 month, the appetite went down, dehydratated.
Blood test: light form of anemia, the biochemical part of the test was normal.
Ultrasonographic evaluation indicates the presence of cysts of varying size in the right kidney, as the body has lost its normal arhistructure.
Single cyst in the left kidney associated with renal pelvis;
Adrenal glands –without changes.
Fluid therapy and NSAID
Norin Chai, DVM., MSc., MSc.V., PhD, Dipl. ECZM (ZHM)
A 38-yr-old female wild-born Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus) with no major clinical problems, presented with chronic lethargy and difficulty in locomotion. The animal was housed at the Me´nagerie du Jardin des Plantes- National Museum of Natural History (Paris, France) with two males and two females, all captive-born. The orangutan developed mild lethargy, anorexia, and at times, mental deficits. Clinical signs progressed from weakness and less frequent ambulation to permanent dorsal recumbency, lateral recumbency, or both.
On day 1, 1 wk after the onset of clinical signs, the orangutan was immobilized with 300 mg of ketamine hydrochloride (4.8 mg/kg i.m.) by Blow dart. Anesthesia was maintained by intermittent supplemental boluses of 200 mg of ketamine every 20 min (3.2 mg/kg i.v.). A constant slow rate infusion intravenously of 0.9% NaCl was administered.
The orangutan’s respiratory rate, heart rate, and pulse oximetry were monitored with a hand-held pulse oximeter. Physical examination and palpation revealed a mild chronic periodontal disease and a left retroperitoneal mass. Hematology, serum biochemistries, thyroid panel, and transthoracic echocardiogram were within normal limits. Serologic titers for herpes simplex type II, herpes B, and herpes SA8; human and simian immunodeficiency; measles; and rubella were negative. Lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs demonstrated no clear and remarkable lesion other than mild arthrosis on the lumbar vertebras.
Abdominal ultrasonography revealed a mass composed by two hypoechogenic cavities with regular margins compatible with a 12-cm X 8-cm X 8-cm left retroperitoneal abscess, cranial and dorsal to the bladder. Guided by ultrasonography, aspirate from the fluid pocket resulted in the collection of purulent liquid. A cytology examination of the fluid revealed high cellularity, with an inflammatory cell population composed entirely of neutrophils and a heterogeneous bacterial population composed of high numbers of cocci and bacilli, often observed intracellularly.
The specimen was sent for bacterial culture and sensitivity. On the basis of these findings, a diagnosis of a retroperitoneal abscess, pyometra, or both was made. The animal received 40 mg of meloxicam (0.64 mg/kg s.c.). An exploratory laparotomy revealed a normal uterus, a retroperitoneal abscess, and enlarged lymph nodes. The abscess was adhered to the bladder, the mesentery, and the soft tissues adjacent to the mass. The mass ruptured upon handling, thus releasing a substantial quantity of pus into the abdominal cavity. The abdominal and abscess cavities were drained using surgical suction. The volume of pus was estimated to be approximately 500 ml. The site was initially rinsed with sterile 0.9% NaCl. Suction was used to evacuate the fluid, and the process was repeated several times. In addition, 800 mg of gentamicin (12.8 mg/kg) was then poured into the abdominal cavity and evenly distributed. Digital exploration of the abscess revealed a ramification close to the vertebral canal.A lumbar-sacral fistulization was suspected. Because of the difficulty separating the abscess from its attachments, only a small portion of the visible membrane was removed. Two bacterial species were cultured from the initial ultrasoundguided aspirate of purulent fluid: Streptococcus and Escherichia coli. Both of these organisms were susceptible to cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones. Histologic examination of the membrane confirmed an inflammatory component rather than a neoplastic process.
The decision was made to create a physiologic drain of the abscess with a functioning omental flap, as described previously in humans, dogs and cats. The remaining abscess cavity was then packed with omentum. The omentum was attached to the abscess membrane with two simple large sutures by using an absorbable suture material. The abdominal wall was closed in two layers (peritoneum and muscular layers) with a continuous suture pattern by using a monofilament nonabsorbable suture material. The skin was closed by a hypodermic running suture, and a simple interrupted suture pattern by using an absorbable suture material. After completion of the surgery, and while still immobilized, the animal was administered 40 mg of meloxicam (0.64 mg/kg s.c.) and 5 ml of a solution containing ascorbic acid, thiamine, pyridoxine, and niacin (Nutra B, Fort Dodge; 0.2 ml/kg i.m.). Systemic antibiotics were administered via injection and include 560 mg of cefovecin (8.58 mg/kg s.c.) and 540 mg of danofloxacine (8.28 mg/kg s.c.). In total, 1,200 mg of ketamine had been administrated to the orangutan to achieve a 125-min period of anaesthesia. The total surgical time was 50 min, and recovery was uneventful and rapid. The animal was placed in its enclosure in lateral recumbency. Forty-five minutes after the last ketamine bolus, the animal demonstrated normal activity and was moving and sitting. A postsurgical analgesia treatment was initiated with 45 mg of meloxicam (0.69 mg/kg p.o., s.i.d. for 5 days.
In humans, retroperitoneal abscesses are not common clinical conditions. The causes of retroperitoneal abscesses include psoas abscess, necrotizing fasciitis, pancreatitis, perforated acute appendicitis, and duodenal diverticulum perforation. The abscesses are often diagnosed by a computed tomography scan. Draining of the abscess without any surgery may be sufficient in some cases, such as a psoas abscess. However, in rare cases, retroperitoneal abscesses may be lethal, even after surgical drainage. In both dogs and cats, retroperitoneal abscesses are usually unilateral. They can be associated with trauma, infection, and depositions of foreign material during surgical procedures and urinary extravasation. In this report, culture isolation of Streptococcus and E. coli suggests that infection was consistent with an ascending bacterial infection from the lower urinary tract, reproductive system, or digestive system. However, no cultures of other organs or fluids were performed to attempt to localize the source of infection. Actually, omentalization is considered to be the treatment of choice for prostatic and pancreatic abscesses in dogs as well as for large and chronic nonhealing wounds, uterine abscesses, and idiopathic chylothorax in a cat. The omentum contains aggregates of blind lymphoid capillaries that provide lymphatic drainage of the peritoneal cavity. This treatment has not been reported previously in orangutans. Omentalization was successful in providing a continuous method of fluid drainage for this retroperitoneal abscess, with minimal requirement for postoperative procedures of the animal.