Dog, yorkshire terrier, F, 6 years old, spayed, vaccinated, dewormed and with fleas and ticks treatment done, 2 kg. She has been scratched for 2 weeks. A new cat was brought home three weeks ago. The cat present areas of alopecia on the tail.
Circumscribed lesions on the shoulder (Fig. 1) and on ventral cervical region (Fig. 3), areas of round shaped alopecia with erythema, scaling.
Remaining hairs may appear broken off.
Positive Wood’s lamp examination – apple green glow associated with the root of each hair (Fig. 2)
Matt fur examined with Wood’s lamp:
auricular pavilion (Fig. 4) and cervical ventral (Fig. 5) positive, fluorescent hairs.
A true dermatophyte infection reveals an apple green fluorescence on the roots of the hair.
Other differentials (ex. demodicosis, superficial pyoderma).
Wood’s lamp examination: typical yellowish-green fluorescent hair shafts that can be given by Microsporum canis strains; only Microsporum canis fluoresces and in only about half of cases. The Wood’s lamp is useful in establishing a tentative diagnosis of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats but false-negative and false-positive results are common. Definitive diagnosis is established by DTM culture.
Trichogram: misshapen hair shafts infiltrated with hyphae and arthrospores.
Deep skin scraped: negative
Topical antifungal treatment applied on whole body twice a week, for 6-8 weeks until the result of the DTM culture is negative. Bathing are recommended to be done with shampoo containing chlorhexidine and an antifungal (ex ketoconazole) after the animal has been clipped. Ointment containing clotrimazole applied locally in thin layer, daily.
Environment: Decontamination measures in the house, where the animal stood (changed and washed carpets, bedding, beds, pillows), taking all measures to remove spores.
Supplements based on Omega 3 and Omega 6, which will help reduce pruritus and inflammation.
The prognosis is good. However, it should not be forgotten that dermatophytosis is a contagious disease that can be transmitted to other animals and humans.
Bajenaru Daniela (Tazy-vet), Bucharest, Romania
Jack, metis, 5 months, adopted from a shelter and treated against Parvovirus infection.
Prinary lesions: alopecia areas on the head, no other types of lesions were observed.
Two weeks after parvovirosis episode, dermatological problem has begun to progress
Wood’s lamp examination
Microscopic examination of the skin scrapings
Hair plucks (trichoscopy)
Color dilution alopecia and other fololicular dysplasias
Wood’s lamp examination- Negative
Microscopic examination of the skin scrapings- Negative
Trichoscopy- irregular distribution and clumping of melanin which distorts the hair shaft.
Fungal culture- Negative
Fig 1,2,3,4- Trichoscopy examination: large grains of melanin which distorts the hair shaft.
Skin biopsy and histopathology reveal macromelanosomes, melanin clumping and follicular dysplasia.
COLOR DILUTION ALOPECIA
There is no effective treatment for this disorder. The disease is progressive and incurable.
avoiding excessive brushing and shampooing
antimicrobial and keratinolytic products only when needed A high-quality DIET and essential fatty acids
after 6 months
Marina-Ştefania Stroe, DVM
Dog, half breed, M, intact, 4 years old, unvaccinated and without treatment for intestinal parasites, fleas and ticks, 10.2 kg.
The main concern was the ophthalmologic problem.
Three weeks ago he had problems with the hind limbs and he had difficulty in moving. Previous treatments: meloxicam, gentamicin, steroidal anti-inflammatory.
The possibility of ingestion of a toxic (plant / substance) is not excluded.
-white mucous membranes, no lesions in the oral cavity;
-necroses in the auricular pavilions with a visible marginal line, foreskin necrosis, yellow crusts and areas of necrosis predominantly on the posterior limbs, tail, dry-looking fur, which is easily detached;
-after detachment, the skin is denuded, ulcerated, very painful on palpation;
-minimal normal auricular secretion;
-corneal erosions, dry eyes, agglutinated secretions at this level;
-faded cardiac noise; imperceptible pulse;
-rectal examination: doughy feces consistency, normal color;
-abdomen in tension;
-blood pressure (indirect oscilometric metod): 138/102 (112 mmHg).
-Chest and abdomen rx and ultrasonography: free fluid; enlarged spleen.
-Ultrasound guided abdominal puncture: yellowish ascitic fluid, orange tint, after spinning small, white deposit. Protein: 1 g / 100 ml.
-Blood tests: low red blood cell counts, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, granulocytosis; elevated liver transaminases, bilirubin and amylase normal values, normal kidney parameters.
-Bleeding time: normal.
-Negative tests for infectious diseases.
-Abdomenocentesis: 335 ml of ascitic fluid and cytological exam: MODIFIED TRANSSUDAT WITH ERYTHROCYTE POLLUTION
Fig. 9: Cutaneous cytology, direct impression smear from necroses of the pinnae (Fig.10): nonsegmentated immature young neutrophils, lymphocytes, few macrophages in whose cytoplasm are found bacilli, bacterial population predominantly represented by bacilli, but also cocci, oxyphilic cell matrix
Fig. 11: Cutaneous cytology, direct impression smear from yellow scale, tail (Fig. 12): neutrophils in all stages: mature segmented, degenerative stage, but also young with eukromatic nucleus and evident nucleoli, macrophages with basophilic cytoplasm, slightly vacuolized, eucromatic nucleus, nucleic streamming, erythrocyte infiltrate.
Fig. 14: Tape prep from yellow scale, hind limb –
keratinocytes on the surface of which are attached cocci, degenerate inflammatory cells
Fig. 13: Trichogram – hair with normal structure, some hair with degraded cuticle, rap A / T: 4/6, follicular cast, negative for demodex and dermatophytes.
Superficial and deep skin scrapes: negative.
-Direct and consensual pupil reflex present;
-Reduced visual acuity;
– Schirmmer test 0 mm / min;
-Florescein test: Positive
Diagnosis: OU Corneal melting ulcer F +
Diagnosis and other differentials
Blood smear, cell morphology: moderate, hypochromic, regenerative anemia,; leukocytosis, neutrophilia, moderate non-specific cellular toxic status, eosinopenia, lymphopenia. In this case, the leukogram (neutrophilia, eosinopenia and lymphopenia) may suggest treatment with corticosteroids, stress, hyperadrenocorticism, severe inflammation (chronic) with various etiologies (viral, bacterial, fungal).
Skin biopsy: histopathological aspects advocate for hyperkeratosis with paracheratosis and chronic inflammatory response involving the epidermis, jonctional area and superficial epidermis.
Histopathological aspects may show Erythema multiforme or TEN (toxic epidermal necrolysis – toxic shock syndrome), which is a late reaction, surprised in a chronic, secondary phase due to fibroblast proliferation.
The toxic shock syndrome may be a reaction to drugs, chemicals or food
Enrofloxacin (dose: 5 mg / kg) at 12h po;
Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (dose: 20 mg / kg) at 12h po;
Furosemide (dose: 5 mg / kg) at 12h iv;
Tramadol (dose: 2mg / kg) at 12h iv;
Acetylcysteine, Tobrex, Corneregel 6-7 times / day (lack of tears).
Veterinary Clinic Ruse, Bulgaria
Dog , male , entire, five years old was evaluated because of signs of hair loss. The name of the dog is Ares. He lives in apartment with his owners.
About two years ago the dog has easily epilated hairs. The coat is typically thin on the neck , on the head and on the trunk symmetrically. The is crusts on the all body. Some parts of the skin are depigmented. Alopecia is growing to the tail. Hair regrowth non existent.It was unhappy dog.
- Skin tests
- Brushing test- a lot of crusts
- Scotch test – negative
- Cytology – negative
- Scratch test – negative
- Trichogram – more hairs in telogen phase
- Blood test – FT4 7.84 pmol/l
-Levothyroxine 10micrograms/ kg/2twise daily
-Dermoscent – ones a week, for four weeks
– washing with Sebolytic
There are visible results two months after therapy and the dog regained his previous behavior.
Blood test after therapy – FT4 19.17pmol/l
Dr Spas Spasov
United veterinary Clinic Varna, Bulgaria
Fibrosarcoma in rabbits are malignancy rapidly grow soft tissues tumor. Can affect cats dogs and rabbits . The couse of fibrosarcoma in rabbit also can be a viral infection (polyomavirus, malignant rabbit fibroma virus)
Rabbit, female , entire , 5 years old was evaluated because of sings of anorexia and apathy .
The owners reported that a week ago the rabbit progressively stops eating. The last two days it didn’t eat at all. Тhe rabbit has regularly deworming and vaccination.
The rabbit eats hay and rabbit granules only and lives in an apartment and never go outside, there are no others animals in the apartment.
Anorexia, cachexia, apathy, unilateral uveitis, normal temperature (38.5).
Clinical examination revealed all of the body (back, neck, abdomen and all the legs) nodules, which are not painful, mobile, not tempered and pigmented .The size of the nodules was variable from 1 to 5 centimeters.
Some nodules were ulcerated and bleeding, and still painless. Such formations are not observed in the nose and the ears, and the front part of the head.
We did not find any abnormalities on the X-ray examination of the chest and abdomen. A nodule was surgically removed by cutting.
Symptomatic therapy was appointed until the results of the histopathological examination:
Metoclopramide-0,5mg / kg
Ranitidine-4 mg / kg
Simethicone-65mg / rabbit
Meloxicam-1mg / kg
Enrofloxacin, 10 mg / kg
Intravenous infusion Hartman 4ml / kg / hour.
So designated therapy lasted about 10 days pending the results of pathological examination The condition of the animal slightly improved, which is expressed in phrases in appearance of appetite. The animal took small amounts of food.
The prognosis for this type of tumors is garded to poor. Because of poor condition of the patient and the prognosis owners decided to euthanased the rabbit.
Vet.Okan KAHRAMAN Greenpet Veterinary Clinic İstanbul/Turkey
Signalament and History
. 3month unvaccinated female cat
. The cat licking the affected foot pads also smelling bad at foot pads sometimes lamess were observed
.All foot pads were affected
.Swollen,soft,ulcerated/erosions (also contaminated with bacteria )
.and some of them were paintful while pysical examination espacially whish one has ulcerated
.vital signs were completly well
.photos (include each foot pads) ( Picure 1)
. Just Leucocystosis other parameters were okay. FIV And FelV test was (-)
Differential Diagnosis.Plasma Cell Pododermatitis.FIV ,FelV.Autoimmune Dermatoses (pemhigus complex,lupus eryt.).Neoplasia
Diagnosis and Treatment.
Feline plasma cell pododermatitis .
prednisolon 1mg/kg X 2 PO (3 day ) after 3.
Day 4mg/kg Metilprednisolon asetat
S.c.cefovesin (convenia ) 8mg/kg S.C.
clindamycin 15mg/kg X 2 PO (5 day ) .
After 10 days later Photos( Picture 2)
Dr Okan Kahraman, Green Pat Veterinary Clinic
20 mg metilprednisoln asetat im just one time
10 day later it was okey !
6-th year student at FMVB, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest
Rottweiler dog, 1 year old, male, intact develop intense pruritus, mild erythema, crusts and less-hairy skin on the phalanges, hocks; no other cutaneous lesion than this diffuse erythema.
- Other differentials (demodicosis, dermatophytosis, contact dermatitis, Malassezia dermatitis, hipersensitivity).
- Pinnal-pedal reflex: rubbing of the ear margin and may obtain a scratch reflex.
- The pinnal-pedal reflex in this case was positive
Superficial skin scraping: negative but false-negative results are commnon because mites are extremely difficult to find.
Deep skin scraping: negative (for Demodex).
Serology (ELISA): detection of IgG antibodies against Sarcoptes. This is highly specific and sensitive test but false-negative results can occur. In this case the test was negative.
Diagnosis: “Scabies incognito”
Treatment and prognosis
- Topical treatment applied to the entire body two times per week, 4-6 weeks. Bathing with a shampoo that contain chlorhexidine and antifungal (ketoconazole) – KetoHexidine shampoo 1%ketoconazole, 2%chlorhexidine.
- Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acid supplements, which reduce inflammation and itching – Megaderm >10 kg, 1 dose/day, 1-2 months.
- Systemic treatment with Ivermectin: 300-400 mcg/kg po or sc, once weekly for weeks. I use this scheme for 5 administration.
- Recheck: progress, hair regrowth, decrease of the lesions.
- The prognosis is good. S. scabiei is a highly contagious to other animals and to humans.
Tazyvet veterinary clinic
Singalment and hystory
Bella, presented on 12/13/2016
10 year old, female, Labrador retriever
5 month history of polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia and pruritus
Thin, hypotonic skin, easy bruising
Calcinosis cutis over the dorsal neck, thorax and rump
Serum chemistry panel
Trichogram, scoch test
ACTH stimulation test
Urinalysis – low specific gravity (1.005)
Coagulation time – 5’
Serum chemistry panel: GPT -361, ALP>1980, CHOL- 215, CREA -0,587, UREA -25,2
Trichogram/ scoch test – no significant findings
Bacteriological ex. – Staphylococcus aureus (++++)
Basal cortisol level > 10 µg
ACTH stimulation test – cortisol= 29,4 µg/dl
CANIN HYPERCORTISOLISM (CUSHING SYNDROM)
SUSPICION: PITUITARY DEPENDENT
TRILOSTANE -120 mg once daily
Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid -12,5 mg/kg/12h, 30 days
Topical: – moisturizing and desinfectant shampoo, once weekly
– antiseptic, anti inflammatory and healing gel, once daily
Diet: low fat
After 3 days of topical treatment
Basal cortisol level > 10 µg/dl
The evolution to be continued ….
Dr Spas Spasov
United Veterinary Clinic
Rabbit nine months old , female entire.She was presented to the clinic with a history of progressive hair loss over the last two months. The rabbit came as a second opinion from another practice where she was treated for mange mites for a month with Doramectin and a month treatment for dermatophytes without result of both treatments.
A clinical examination found:
Generalised alopecia, yellow crusty skin,pododermatitis over the pelvic limbs and abnormal skin elasticity.
*microscopic examination- Negative for ectoparasites
*Punch biopsy- There is diffuse thickening of the epidermis characterized by laminated stratum corneum with disproportionate thickness than the underlying nucleated epidermis. Focal parakeratosis is also present. The epidermis is mildly to moderately achantotic. The follicular infundibulum is greatly distended by keratin. The granular layer of the epidermis exhibits different sizes of keratohyalin granules (hypergranulosis). Superficial dermis lacks follicular and adnexal structures. Few intact sebaceous glands are present. There is no evidence of neoplastic cells, parasitic/mycotic/fungal or bacterial elements in the examinated sections. The histological appearace is consistent with non-epidermolytic ichthyosis.
Treatment was undertaken to support body hydration, using megaderm( omega three and six fatty acids,linolenic acid,GLA,EPA,DHA )in order to strengthen the skin structure. pain medication(meloxicam 0.2mg/kg ), and antibiotic therapy(Procaine penicillin 150,000 IU per mL. Benzathine penicillin 150,000 IU per mL. ) to control the bacterial infection of the feet.
There was an option for treatment microneedle therapy, but the sample for histopathological study did not showed hair follicles.
After one month of therapy the rabbits skin had significantly improved. However pododermatitis had worsened and abscesses had formed over the limbs.
Due to failure of antibiotic therapy and deteriorationof pododermatitis, the decision was to euthanase the rabbit.
Ichthyosis is a inherited genetic disorder that occurs both in humans and in animals characterized by diffuse keratinization of the surface layer of the skin. The disease develops as a result of gene mutation that is passed from generation to generation.
Ichthyosis studies are more for dogs and cats, and not so much about rabbits. There is not much information regarding the classification of rabbit Ichthyosis and details of treatment or maintenance therapy.
Affected BreedsThe West Highland White Terrier and the Golden Retriever are the breeds most predisposed to this disease