Congenital follicular parakeratosis is a hereditary disorder affecting females, which suggests a X-linked mode of inheritance, the particular aspect of the condition is not affecting the skin of the nose and footpads unlike other seborrheic disorders.
More about this particular condition can be found in Small Animal Dermatology 7th Edition.
This particular case seemed interesting as it occurs very rarely and even more so there are few cases when owners are willing to do everything they can to keep them in good shape.
Female stray dog presents to our clinic in gravely bad shape, with serious skin scaling , waxy material clumping together most of her coat, runny eyes and greasy smell.
Comes from a litter of 3 puppies, her other brothers being already twice her weight, with normal skin condition
Age: 2 months
Sex: Female, Mixed breed
Waxy material concentrated mostly on the edges of the pinnae and on her neck
Waxy material covering most of her body, creating clumps of hair, general aspect of a dirty dog
Due to the severity of her condition, several tests have been performed to exclude potential affections:
*CDV test – negative
*Otoscopic examination: Billateral ceruminous otitis, with buildup waxy hair follicles inside the ear canal
*Skin scrapings: Negative for ectoparasites
*Cytology from different sites of affected skin – keratinocyes, corneocytes accompanied with malassesia, no other signs of inflamation present
*Cytology from ears- copious amounts of ceruminous debris, flourishing with malassesia
*Cytology of the conjunctiva- chains of cocci, macrophages and neutrofiles
*Trichogram revealed normal hair structure, mostly in telogen phase, but embedded in a dense brown waxy material.
*Giardia test- negative
*Moderate Toxocara infestation
After ruling out most of the possible diagnostics, Demi was reexamined closely looking for particularities.
-It turned out that the keratosis was affecting especially the external areas of the pinnae, the ventral side of the neck, the entire back and along the limbs and in a smaller part the abdomen.
-It was peculiar that the skin on her nose was normal, as well as her footpads, which led me into thinking about this possible condition, that could only be 100% proved with a skin biopsy.
-Unfortunately the owner who rescued her did not agree with the biopsy so I had to move onto the therapy without knowing 100%, but shortly after I was sure that this was it.
-Demi remained at the clinic for 2 months, giving us time to use proper treatment such as:
-Frequent bathing (2-3x/week) with Benzoyl peroxide followed by mixed shamoo (ketohexidine) and a conditioner
-High quality protein diet based on salmon
-Daily Omega 3 and 6 oral suppliments and weekly spot ons.
-Daily Vitamin complex with high ammount of vitamin A and E
-The otitis externa was treated with Clorexyderm oto and Surolan 2x/daily for 14 days
-The conjunctivits was resolved with cloramfenicol drops and daily cleansing of the ocular area – the hyperkeratosis also affected her eyelashes, constantly irritating the eyes, I had to remove each affected lash.
-She received deworming pills and sarolaner to control the endo and ectoparasites.
DEMI AFTER 7 DAYS OF TREATMENT
DEMI AFTER 14 DAYS OF TREATMENT
DEMI AFTER 1 MONTH OF TREATMENT
DEMI AFTER 2 MONTHS OF TREATMENT
As you can see, her condition can be kept under control especially if the owner understands that it’s a lifetime condition and she will require special treatment for the rest of her life
She had a brief period of time when I decided to see how long it takes until new keratin materials starts to form if I stop the treatment and it only took 6 days for the most affected areas to relapse.
It’s a rare condition, I was especially glad to be able to care for her and to see that there are people willing to do everything needed to keep her in good shape
I’m pretty sure most of these dogs don’t survive long if in the wild, or are discarded by breeders if not, let’s say Demi was lucky enough to be rescued at such a young age.
Veterinaru clinic VitalVet
Information about the patient:
Species: Canis familiaris
The dog had been treated for 14 days at another veterinary clinic for allergy with steroidal non-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid).On presentation at our clinic the owner complained about the fact that the dog was pruritic and had the lesions presented in the pictures shown below.
Skin citology, Gram stain: Gram positive, rod shaped cocci (Staphylococcus spp.);
Wood lamp examination: positive;
Trichogram: swollen, frayed hair with irregular outline; cortex and medulla structure – abnormal;
Deep skin scraping: positive for Demodex.
Diagnostic: Demodicosis with secondary pioderma and fungal infection (dermatophytosis).
– Simparica (sarolaner) 1x/month, repeat until 3 consecutive negativ skin scrapings;
- Marbofloxacin, 21 days;
- Bathing with therapeutic shampoo (ketokonazol, clorhexidine formulation) every 3 days;
- Every 3rd bath another therapeutic shampoo was used (benzoyl peroxide);
- Dermoscent Pyo spot-on, 1x/week, 4 weeks;
- FortiFlora probiotics.
Topical gel with onion extract and heparin;
Follow up after 1 month:
After 3 months from the initial consultation:
Dog, yorkshire terrier, F, 6 years old, spayed, vaccinated, dewormed and with fleas and ticks treatment done, 2 kg. She has been scratched for 2 weeks. A new cat was brought home three weeks ago. The cat present areas of alopecia on the tail.
Circumscribed lesions on the shoulder (Fig. 1) and on ventral cervical region (Fig. 3), areas of round shaped alopecia with erythema, scaling.
Remaining hairs may appear broken off.
Positive Wood’s lamp examination – apple green glow associated with the root of each hair (Fig. 2)
Matt fur examined with Wood’s lamp:
auricular pavilion (Fig. 4) and cervical ventral (Fig. 5) positive, fluorescent hairs.
A true dermatophyte infection reveals an apple green fluorescence on the roots of the hair.
Other differentials (ex. demodicosis, superficial pyoderma).
Wood’s lamp examination: typical yellowish-green fluorescent hair shafts that can be given by Microsporum canis strains; only Microsporum canis fluoresces and in only about half of cases. The Wood’s lamp is useful in establishing a tentative diagnosis of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats but false-negative and false-positive results are common. Definitive diagnosis is established by DTM culture.
Trichogram: misshapen hair shafts infiltrated with hyphae and arthrospores.
Deep skin scraped: negative
Topical antifungal treatment applied on whole body twice a week, for 6-8 weeks until the result of the DTM culture is negative. Bathing are recommended to be done with shampoo containing chlorhexidine and an antifungal (ex ketoconazole) after the animal has been clipped. Ointment containing clotrimazole applied locally in thin layer, daily.
Environment: Decontamination measures in the house, where the animal stood (changed and washed carpets, bedding, beds, pillows), taking all measures to remove spores.
Supplements based on Omega 3 and Omega 6, which will help reduce pruritus and inflammation.
The prognosis is good. However, it should not be forgotten that dermatophytosis is a contagious disease that can be transmitted to other animals and humans.
Bajenaru Daniela (Tazy-vet), Bucharest, Romania
Jack, metis, 5 months, adopted from a shelter and treated against Parvovirus infection.
Prinary lesions: alopecia areas on the head, no other types of lesions were observed.
Two weeks after parvovirosis episode, dermatological problem has begun to progress
Wood’s lamp examination
Microscopic examination of the skin scrapings
Hair plucks (trichoscopy)
Color dilution alopecia and other fololicular dysplasias
Wood’s lamp examination- Negative
Microscopic examination of the skin scrapings- Negative
Trichoscopy- irregular distribution and clumping of melanin which distorts the hair shaft.
Fungal culture- Negative
Fig 1,2,3,4- Trichoscopy examination: large grains of melanin which distorts the hair shaft.
Skin biopsy and histopathology reveal macromelanosomes, melanin clumping and follicular dysplasia.
COLOR DILUTION ALOPECIA
There is no effective treatment for this disorder. The disease is progressive and incurable.
avoiding excessive brushing and shampooing
antimicrobial and keratinolytic products only when needed A high-quality DIET and essential fatty acids
after 6 months
Marina-Ştefania Stroe, DVM
Dog, half breed, M, intact, 4 years old, unvaccinated and without treatment for intestinal parasites, fleas and ticks, 10.2 kg.
The main concern was the ophthalmologic problem.
Three weeks ago he had problems with the hind limbs and he had difficulty in moving. Previous treatments: meloxicam, gentamicin, steroidal anti-inflammatory.
The possibility of ingestion of a toxic (plant / substance) is not excluded.
-white mucous membranes, no lesions in the oral cavity;
-necroses in the auricular pavilions with a visible marginal line, foreskin necrosis, yellow crusts and areas of necrosis predominantly on the posterior limbs, tail, dry-looking fur, which is easily detached;
-after detachment, the skin is denuded, ulcerated, very painful on palpation;
-minimal normal auricular secretion;
-corneal erosions, dry eyes, agglutinated secretions at this level;
-faded cardiac noise; imperceptible pulse;
-rectal examination: doughy feces consistency, normal color;
-abdomen in tension;
-blood pressure (indirect oscilometric metod): 138/102 (112 mmHg).
-Chest and abdomen rx and ultrasonography: free fluid; enlarged spleen.
-Ultrasound guided abdominal puncture: yellowish ascitic fluid, orange tint, after spinning small, white deposit. Protein: 1 g / 100 ml.
-Blood tests: low red blood cell counts, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, granulocytosis; elevated liver transaminases, bilirubin and amylase normal values, normal kidney parameters.
-Bleeding time: normal.
-Negative tests for infectious diseases.
-Abdomenocentesis: 335 ml of ascitic fluid and cytological exam: MODIFIED TRANSSUDAT WITH ERYTHROCYTE POLLUTION
Fig. 9: Cutaneous cytology, direct impression smear from necroses of the pinnae (Fig.10): nonsegmentated immature young neutrophils, lymphocytes, few macrophages in whose cytoplasm are found bacilli, bacterial population predominantly represented by bacilli, but also cocci, oxyphilic cell matrix
Fig. 11: Cutaneous cytology, direct impression smear from yellow scale, tail (Fig. 12): neutrophils in all stages: mature segmented, degenerative stage, but also young with eukromatic nucleus and evident nucleoli, macrophages with basophilic cytoplasm, slightly vacuolized, eucromatic nucleus, nucleic streamming, erythrocyte infiltrate.
Fig. 14: Tape prep from yellow scale, hind limb –
keratinocytes on the surface of which are attached cocci, degenerate inflammatory cells
Fig. 13: Trichogram – hair with normal structure, some hair with degraded cuticle, rap A / T: 4/6, follicular cast, negative for demodex and dermatophytes.
Superficial and deep skin scrapes: negative.
-Direct and consensual pupil reflex present;
-Reduced visual acuity;
– Schirmmer test 0 mm / min;
-Florescein test: Positive
Diagnosis: OU Corneal melting ulcer F +
Diagnosis and other differentials
Blood smear, cell morphology: moderate, hypochromic, regenerative anemia,; leukocytosis, neutrophilia, moderate non-specific cellular toxic status, eosinopenia, lymphopenia. In this case, the leukogram (neutrophilia, eosinopenia and lymphopenia) may suggest treatment with corticosteroids, stress, hyperadrenocorticism, severe inflammation (chronic) with various etiologies (viral, bacterial, fungal).
Skin biopsy: histopathological aspects advocate for hyperkeratosis with paracheratosis and chronic inflammatory response involving the epidermis, jonctional area and superficial epidermis.
Histopathological aspects may show Erythema multiforme or TEN (toxic epidermal necrolysis – toxic shock syndrome), which is a late reaction, surprised in a chronic, secondary phase due to fibroblast proliferation.
The toxic shock syndrome may be a reaction to drugs, chemicals or food
Enrofloxacin (dose: 5 mg / kg) at 12h po;
Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (dose: 20 mg / kg) at 12h po;
Furosemide (dose: 5 mg / kg) at 12h iv;
Tramadol (dose: 2mg / kg) at 12h iv;
Acetylcysteine, Tobrex, Corneregel 6-7 times / day (lack of tears).
Veterinary Clinic Ruse, Bulgaria
Dog , male , entire, five years old was evaluated because of signs of hair loss. The name of the dog is Ares. He lives in apartment with his owners.
About two years ago the dog has easily epilated hairs. The coat is typically thin on the neck , on the head and on the trunk symmetrically. The is crusts on the all body. Some parts of the skin are depigmented. Alopecia is growing to the tail. Hair regrowth non existent.It was unhappy dog.
- Skin tests
- Brushing test- a lot of crusts
- Scotch test – negative
- Cytology – negative
- Scratch test – negative
- Trichogram – more hairs in telogen phase
- Blood test – FT4 7.84 pmol/l
-Levothyroxine 10micrograms/ kg/2twise daily
-Dermoscent – ones a week, for four weeks
– washing with Sebolytic
There are visible results two months after therapy and the dog regained his previous behavior.
Blood test after therapy – FT4 19.17pmol/l
Dr Spas Spasov
United veterinary Clinic Varna, Bulgaria
Fibrosarcoma in rabbits are malignancy rapidly grow soft tissues tumor. Can affect cats dogs and rabbits . The couse of fibrosarcoma in rabbit also can be a viral infection (polyomavirus, malignant rabbit fibroma virus)
Rabbit, female , entire , 5 years old was evaluated because of sings of anorexia and apathy .
The owners reported that a week ago the rabbit progressively stops eating. The last two days it didn’t eat at all. Тhe rabbit has regularly deworming and vaccination.
The rabbit eats hay and rabbit granules only and lives in an apartment and never go outside, there are no others animals in the apartment.
Anorexia, cachexia, apathy, unilateral uveitis, normal temperature (38.5).
Clinical examination revealed all of the body (back, neck, abdomen and all the legs) nodules, which are not painful, mobile, not tempered and pigmented .The size of the nodules was variable from 1 to 5 centimeters.
Some nodules were ulcerated and bleeding, and still painless. Such formations are not observed in the nose and the ears, and the front part of the head.
We did not find any abnormalities on the X-ray examination of the chest and abdomen. A nodule was surgically removed by cutting.
Symptomatic therapy was appointed until the results of the histopathological examination:
Metoclopramide-0,5mg / kg
Ranitidine-4 mg / kg
Simethicone-65mg / rabbit
Meloxicam-1mg / kg
Enrofloxacin, 10 mg / kg
Intravenous infusion Hartman 4ml / kg / hour.
So designated therapy lasted about 10 days pending the results of pathological examination The condition of the animal slightly improved, which is expressed in phrases in appearance of appetite. The animal took small amounts of food.
The prognosis for this type of tumors is garded to poor. Because of poor condition of the patient and the prognosis owners decided to euthanased the rabbit.
Vet.Okan KAHRAMAN Greenpet Veterinary Clinic İstanbul/Turkey
Signalament and History
. 3month unvaccinated female cat
. The cat licking the affected foot pads also smelling bad at foot pads sometimes lamess were observed
.All foot pads were affected
.Swollen,soft,ulcerated/erosions (also contaminated with bacteria )
.and some of them were paintful while pysical examination espacially whish one has ulcerated
.vital signs were completly well
.photos (include each foot pads) ( Picure 1)
. Just Leucocystosis other parameters were okay. FIV And FelV test was (-)
Differential Diagnosis.Plasma Cell Pododermatitis.FIV ,FelV.Autoimmune Dermatoses (pemhigus complex,lupus eryt.).Neoplasia
Diagnosis and Treatment.
Feline plasma cell pododermatitis .
prednisolon 1mg/kg X 2 PO (3 day ) after 3.
Day 4mg/kg Metilprednisolon asetat
S.c.cefovesin (convenia ) 8mg/kg S.C.
clindamycin 15mg/kg X 2 PO (5 day ) .
After 10 days later Photos( Picture 2)