Degenerative Mucinotic Mural Folliculitis in cat – first case in Bulgaria

IVDr. Ivelina Vacheva, DVM
Central Vet Clinic, Sofia, Bulgaria
ESVD member, BAVD bord member

Introduction

Degenerative Mucinotic Mural Folliculitis (DMMF) is a rare, poorly understood syndrome in cats, defined as an inflammatory reaction pattern. It is characterized by inflammation of the hair follicle, atrophy degeneration and mucin production. The inflammatory reaction, takes place on the follicle wall, primarily affecting the external sheath of the hair above the follicular isthmus. However it can also affect the infundibulum or the bulbar portion of the hair follicle.
Literature (incl. case studies) regarding feline DMMF is sparse. It can be briefly summarized as follows: All described cases are in middle aged to older cats, the majority of which are male, with no information on breed predisposition. The most characteristic features are: Alopecia of the face, head and neck and in a later stage affecting the body and limbs. Pruritus, if present, is mild to very intense. The diagnosis is confirmed by biopsy and subsequent histopathological examination.

Case Study

Mila is an approximately 1,4 years old spayed female cat. She used to be a stray cat, until a lady, regularly

1_1 Mila before the onset of her skin problem

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1_2 Mila before the onset of her skin problem

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feeding her, noted dramatic changes to the cat’s fur. The lady temporarily adopted the cat and took her to several veterinarians. The lady provided shelter to about 20 other cats. According to the owner all cats were treated monthly with Broadline (Merial).
Picture 1.1, 1.2 Mila before the onset of her skin problem

 

2_1 hypotrichosis of the face

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2_2 hypotrichosis of the distal parts of the limbs

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First signs were: hypotrichosis of the face (pic. 2.1) and subsequent minor hypotrichosis of the distal parts of the limbs (pic. 2.2)
The cat’s skin condition gradually worsened. She showed progressive hypotrichosis, and alopecia, with severe pruritus. She was seen by a veterinarian and treated with Synulox (Zoetis) orally for 20 days, which reduced the inflammatory signs. Later she was seen by another veterinarian and underwent the following treatments (in a period of 3-4 months):
Pulse therapy (7 days of medication, 7 day break etc.) with oral itraconazole 5mg/kg q24h. Without good response.
Purina Pro Plan veterinary diets HA Hypoallergenic, for two months.
Ivermectin 0.3mg/kg q24h orally for 10 days.
According to the owner, the cat’s skin condition worsened. Described signs included: Pruritus, hypotrichosis, alopecia, skin hyperpigmentation and presence of scales and crusts.
The cat was admitted to our hospital for a second opinion. As as side note: Once admitted to our clinic, the lady signed the cat over to a local charity Redom.
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The cat presented with the following signs:

  • Symmetrical alopecia of the face and head. The skin had a thickened and swollen appearance.
  • Severe pruritus (9/10 – 10/10)
  • Hypotrichosis and alopecia of the entire body.
  • Hyperpigmentation, scales and crusts covering the dorsum.
  • Very passive and apathetic.
  • According to the owner the animal is not feeling well, has an increased water intake and softer stools, with more frequent defecation than usual.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Differential diagnoses (several)
Demodicosis; Notoedrosis
Feline atopic syndrome (allergies)
Feline sebaceous adenitis
Dermatophytosis
Degenerative mucinous mural folliculitis
FIV / FeLV
Thymoma-associated exfoliative dermatitis in cats
Lymphoma

The cat was hospitalized for further diagnostics and treatment was started, while waiting for the results of histopathology.
Results of clincial exam and diagnostic tests:
Skin scrape, hair plaque, tape strip: All negative for Demodex and Notoedres mites.
Tape strip cytology: Epithelial cells, but no neutrophils or Malassezia.
The ears have brown ear wax; Cytology – only epithelial cells, no Malassezia and no Otodectes cynotis.
CBC: WBC HH 58.24×109/L(5-19,5); NEU 25×109/L(2-12,5); LYM 16×109/ L; MONO 7,21 x109/L (0,15-1,7); EOS 8,58×109/L (0,1-0,79); BASO 0,13 x 109/L (0-0,1).
Blood Biochemistry: All parameters within normal range.
TT4= 18 nmol/l (10-80).
Urine: pH 7; PRO 30 mg/dl; GLU, KETO, UBG, BIL and BLOOD negative. No sediment.
Abdominal Ultrasound: Except for slightly enlarged inguinal lymph nodes, the other abdominal organs were unremarkable.
Chest radiographs: Bronchial pattern, possible cause could be lung worms. (Picture 4)
Fecal flotation: Negative
Bearman: Negative
PCR (antigen) Assays: FCoV, FIV, FeLV, Toxoplasma gondii and Giardia ALL negative.
Skin biopsy: Histopathology results below.
Lymph node biopsy: Histopathology results below.

Therapy

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5_1 The cat is licking and biting her legs and tail as well as scratching her neck

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Picture 5 (5.1-5.4): The cat is licking and biting her legs and tail, as well as scratching her neck.

Intravenous fluids: Ringer’s lactate solution 10 ml/h for 5 days. Antibiotics: Ceftriaxone 30 mg/kg IV q12h and Enrofloxacin 5 mg/kg SC q24h for 14days each. Anti-parasitic: Fenbendazole 50 mg/kg PO q24h for 5 days. Antihistamine: Diphenhydramine 1,5 mg/kg SC q24h for 2 weeks. Continuation of Purina Pro Plan veterinary diets HA Hypoallergenic and supplementing this with 4 drops YuMEGA cat (omega-3, -6, -9 fatty acids) once daily. A single application of dexamethasone 0,25 mg/kg SC, resulted in a major reduction of the pruritus!

The CBC was repeated the next day, but did not show significant changes. However the CBC 48h after hospitalization did: WBC HH 44.8×109/L(5-19,5); NEU 19,5 x109/L (2-12,5); LYM 14,12 x109/L; MONO 1,96 x109/L (0,07-1,36); EOS 9,12 x109/L (0,06- 1,93); BASO 0,05 x109/L (0-0,1).
Clinically no evidence of polydipsia!
The charity agreed on taking biopsies (and subsequent histopathology) of the skin, spleen and enlarged lymph node.
Results – Histopathology
Spleen and inguinal lymphnode biopsy
(Dimitra Psalla, DVM, PhD)
Histopathological findings:
Spleen: Multifocally white pulp is composed of atypical round cells with distinct cell borders, scant to moderate amphophilic cytoplasm, round to ovoid nuclei with finely stippled chromatin and one large basophilic nucleolus. There is moderate pleomorphism and mitoses average 1 per HPF. Multifocally red pulp is infiltrated by small numbers of neutrophils.
Inguinal lymphnode: Focal presence of atypical cells similar to those described above. Lymphnode is infiltrated by few neutrophils.
Diagnosis :Spleen and inguinal lymphnode: Infiltration by atypical round cells (accompanied by neutrophilic inflammation)
Comments: The diagnosis of lymphoma cannot be confirmed since the distribution of the atypical cells is limited on the white pulp and the pleomorphism is not high. This population could reflect a hyperplastic conditionas well.

Skin Biopsies – face, lateral body and dorsum
(Dimitra Psalla, DVM, PhD)
Histopathological findings:
There is moderate irregular acanthosis that extends to follicular infundibula and is accompanied by mild spongiosis. Follicular isthmuses are severely infiltrated by the lymphocytes, histiocytes, neutrophils, and few eosinophils and multinucleated giant cells and the inflammatory infiltration is extending to the infundibulum. Parts of the follicular wall are widened due to accumulation of mucin (clear/basophilic spaces). Follicular atrophy is moderate to severe; normal anagen hair follicles are interspersed, particularly in less inflamed lesions. Moderate numbers of lymphocytes, histiocytes, neutrophils, and plasma cells surround hair follicles and infiltrate the superficial dermis. The histopathological features are similar in all the examined samples.
Diagnosis and Comments : The histopathological findings are compatible with the “Degenerative mucinotic mural folliculitis in cats”.

6 DMMF 1

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6 DMMF 3

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6 DMMF 2

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Picture 6 (6.1-6.3 pictures) Dimitra Psalla, DVM, PhD
Severely infiltrated Follicular isthmuses by the lymphocytes, histiocytes, neutrophils, and few eosinophils and multinucleated giant cells. Inflammatory infiltration is extending to the infundibulum. Accumulation of mucin. Follicular atrophy is moderate to severe. Moderate numbers of lymphocytes, histiocytes, neutrophils, and plasma cells surround hair follicles and infiltrate the superficial dermis.

Therapy continuation following the histopathology results:

The cat was started on oral prednisolone 3 mg/kg q24.Tapering off the prednisolone after 75% of the skin lesions had resolved and switching to cyclosporine, to avoid longer term adverse effects of corticosteroid treatment.

 

 

 

7_1 One week after the start of prednisolone

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Picture 7(7.1-7.3 pictures) – One week after the start of prednisolone.

Supportive therapy included: Once weekly bathing with Clorexyderm ICF shampoo (4% chlorhexidine); Ectoparasite treatment with Stronghold plus (Zoetis) every 4 weeks; Purina Pro Plan veterinary diets HA Hypoallergenic and supplementing this with 4 drops YuMEGA cat once daily.

To stop the cat from reaching her skin and further self-mutilation, caused by the severe pruritus she was experiencing, she was dressed in a suit. She readily excepted the suit and wore it without any problem.

8_1 Two weeks after the start of prednisolone

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Picture 8(8.1-8.3 pictures)Two weeks after the start of prednisolone.
Fur started regrowing on her head, body and legs.

There was a significant reduction in skin hyperpigmentation, scaling and crusting on the dorsum.
Gradually the pruritus decreased and the cat became more friendly, more active and was no longer apathetic.

After 3 weeks the prednisolone was tapered off gradually to an anti-inflammatory dose. (The oral prednisolone was decreased with 0.5 mg/kg every 5days, reaching 0,5 mg/kg q24h and finally after 5 days set on 0,5 mg/kg q48h).
Once the prednisolone dosage of 0,5 mg/kg q48h was reached, the cat was started on cyclosporine (suspension) 5mg/kg PO q24h simultaneously, for a duration of 10 days. Then the prednisolone was discontinued and the cyclosporine dosage increased to 7 mg/kg PO q24h.

9-1 Four weeks after the start of prednisolone

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Picture 9(9.1-9.5 pics.)Four weeks after the start of prednisolone.
Mila is much livelier and her fur is regrowing. However there are moments she is intensively licking herself, causing new skin lesions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10_1 Two weeks after start of cyclosporin

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Picture 10(10.1-10.3 pics.)Two weeks after start of cyclosporin.
Mila while on cyclosporine – visibly improved. No more alopecia, no longer itchy and no new skin lesions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

11 Three weeks after start of cyclosporin-1

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11 Three weeks after start of cyclosporin-2

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11 Three weeks after start of cyclosporin-3

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11 Three weeks after start of cyclosporin-4

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11Three weeks after start of cyclosporin-6

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Picture 11(11.1-11.6 pics.)Three weeks after start of cyclosporin.
Mila was feeling much better and was discharged after 12 weeks of inpatient care. She was now being cared for in a single-cat foster home. After discharging Mila she was monitored and followed up closely.
Mila was discharged and after two weeks came for her first check-up.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12 -1 2 weeks after discharging

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Picture 12 (12.1-12.4 pics.) Mila 2 weeks after discharging.

The cat progressed steadily, with normal fur regrowth on head, body, legs and tail. The skin of the dorsum was still very scaly.
The following supportive therapy was continued and slightly modified: Weekly washing with Clorexyderm 4% shampoo (ICF) , directly followed by washing with Allermyl (Virbac) shampoo. Topical treatment with Dermoscent Spot-on once weekly was added to the treatment protocol. Feeding Purina Pro Plan veterinary diets HA Hypoallergenic, but no longer supplementing with YuMEGA cat.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13_1 Mila in her foster home

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13_2 Mila in her foster home

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Picture 13(13.1-13.2 pics.) Mila in her foster home. Mila 8 weeks after discharging

The supportive therapy was continued and oral cyclosporine was reduced to 5 mg/kg q48h for another 2 months.
Her skin and coat were looking great and she was no longer itchy. She became active, friendly and very social.

 

 

 

Case Follow- up
Seven months after her last check-up Mila presented with dyspnoe. Diagnostics showed thoracic effusion and severe anemia. Thoracentesis was performed and she had several blood transfusions. However she didn’t improve. Feline Infectious Peritonitis was suspected. Eventually the decision was made to euthanize her.

Acknowledgments

I am particularly grateful for the cooperation with Dr. Rania Farmaki, Dp.ECVD, DVM and Dr. Dimitra Psalla, DVM, PhD. They provided me with invaluable advice and supported me throughout this difficult but interesting case. I would also like to thank the local charity Redom for their excellent care, trust and financial support. Finally, I wish to thank all my colleagues from the Central Veterinary Clinic in Sofia (Bulgaria) for their assistance.

REFERENCES:
Degenerative mucinotic mural folliculitis in cats- Gross TL, Olivry T, Vitale CB, Power HT. Vet Dermatol. 2001;12(5):279-8
Lymphocytic mural folliculitis and pancreatic carcinoma in a cat Remo Lobetti (Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 2015, 17 (6): 548-50)
Thymoma associated with exfoliative dermatitis in a cat. Jacqueline Vallim Jacobina Cavalcanti1, Mariana Pereira Moura1 and Fabio Oliveira Monteiro2 (Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery 2014, Vol. 16(12) 1020– 1023)
First Case of Degenerative Mucinotic Mural Folliculitis in Brazil- Reginaldo Pereira de Sousa Filho, Veronica Machado Rolim, Keytyanne de Oliveira Sampaio, David Driemeier, Marina Gabriela Monteiro Carvalho Mori da Cunha, Fernanda Vieira Amorim da Costa
An anatomical classification of folliculitis-Gross LG, Stannard AA, Yager JA. Veterinary Dermatology. 1997;8147-156.

PSITTACINE BEAK AND FEATHER DISEASE (PBFD)

22789068_1470407493007067_8559896759169020355_n-e1509292305812Dr Daniela Drumea

Tazyvet

Bucharest, Romania

 

 

Psittacine circoviral disease (PCD) affects parrots and related species and is often fatal to birds that contact it. They can become infected through the oral cavity, nasal passages, and through the cloaca. High concentration of the virus are shed in feather dust from infected birds.

57852425_424073691709429_468459032231804928_n 57852457_319448765410927_6911369314394177536_n 58372676_427288701431521_6386664932347215872_n 58373437_1239057269605106_2334186262904176640_n 58374865_333792717340429_579808984253333504_n 58376590_2293347837571650_5599859148859637760_n 58419526_804245556626280_8224210503178649600_n 58419883_407021730151608_4645924767566659584_n

Bobita, was one of those unfortunate birds. He is a juvenile male cockatiel, bought from a pet-shop about 3 months ago, when he was 4 months.

The owner noticed that the bird is singing more and more rarely, and when he does, the voice is hoarse. Beside this, he also noticed that the animal is losing his feathers. The owner thought it might be a hypovitaminosis, so he started to give him vitamins. When he noticed bleeding on the base of the feathers he scared and made the decision to bring him to the vet.

Clinical presentation:

During the consultation we noticed that the bird easily loses his plumage, he does not have any destructive feather behaviors or feather picking. He had a poor feather quality, they were more discolored than normal and the shape was abnormally (curved and stunting of the feathers). A part of the feathers on the head was lost. Feather dystrophy, hemorrhage within the pulp and circumferential constrictions of the feather shaft were observed. The beak started to pigment and there was a slight exfoliation, claws were longer than normal.

Differential diagnosis

Ectoparasites, viruses (circovirus [PBFD], polyomavirus), genetic conditions. Other factors that may negatively affect feather condition are low humidity, exposure to aerosols, cigarette smoke or other toxins, malnutrition and chronic systemic illnesses (hepatopathy, nephropathy).

Diagnosis

Microscopic examination of the pulp and feather were performed. In the examined samples there were no evidence of fungal, bacterial or parasitic infections. A PCR exam was performed from growing feathers pulp to detect PBFD virus DNA.

A positive PBFD- PCR result has been received.58004052_813644272342082_91552377580027904_n 58682417_2826329927441468_8642168322101608448_n 58629935_602178353581986_2865223522689482752_n

Treatment and prognosis

Because the disease is not in a very advanced stage supportive treatment focused on the stabilization of the immune system, a balanced diet and a stress free environment was recommended. The most important prevention is the hygiene of the cage and educating the owner how to disinfect, because they represent a risk   of spreading the disease.

Feather loss might be acceptable, but beak and claws changes are painful and usually a reason for euthanasia

Rare case of Feline Progressive Histiocytic Disease (FPH) – A case report

41768527_2349628575051886_8602568388625039360_nDr Giulia Nadasan

Vet Point Vest

Arad, Romania

This is the story of Chucky, a senior 9 year old european male neutered cat. He used to live in an outdoor environment. His medical history is very long, since he was young he had different pathologies from infectious diseases, chronic urolithiasis ended with urethrostomy and a femur fracture osteosintesis.

Chucky was a well monitored patient with all his dewormings and vaccinations on time.

Chucky was presented for a clinical consult because the owner noticed something on his skin. On the first clinical presentation I found two skin lesions (papules) about 0.5 cm diameter non ulcerated on the dorsal thorax, well circumscribed that made my think of piogranulomatosis pioderma. I started a treatment with amoxicillin + clavulanic acid and asked them to come back after 7 days. At the second consult, Chucky looked exactly like in the pictures, he was suffering of a generalized nodular ulcerated dermatitis.54515532_560264067813760_3040561606883803136_n

A skin biopsy was made the next day and the sample was sent to the histopathology lab.

 

Pathology findings : the superficial and profound dermis are infiltrated with neutrophils, macrophages, histyocitic mesenchymal cells with atypical mitosis and eosinophils and also areas of necrosis and hemorrhage (histovet.ro) = piogranulomatosis pioderma with histiocytic neoplastic component

 

DIAGNOSIS : Progressive non-epiteliotropic feline histiocytic disease

 

 

Biological facts:

Histiocytes are mesenchymal cells derived from the bone marrow as stem cells. They either become macrophages or dendritic cells (antigen presenting cells APC). Dendritic cells can be also divided into Langerhan cells, interstitial dendritic cells or interdigitating dendritic cells.

Using immunophenotyping methods the histyocites were found expressing CD1a, CD1c, CD18 and MHC class 2 molecules used specific for dendritic cells and not Langerhan cells.

 

Epidemiology:

Feline Progressive Histiocytic disease is a benign skin neoplasia in humans and dogs but it is extremely rare in cats. In a 2006 study conducted by Affolter and Moore (VetPathol.43(5)646-55) it is said that except some case reports this disease has not been characterized in cats. They analysed the cases of 30 cats with FPH and summarized that there is no breed or age predilection, that females are more prone on developing this disease and that it is a fatal one with no successful treatment options.

 

Clinical findings in Chucky :54416663_265039581075898_1025659308638994432_n 55575966_692832224465879_5135189188315971584_n

  • Multiple papules with red margins, non-pruritic on the body especially on the dorsal and lateral thorax
  • Ulcerated nodules on the head and ears also non-pruritic
  • Periauricular alopecia with hyperpigmentationPrognosis:

    FPH is a slowly progressive skin neoplasia that does not cause any pain but will spread behind the skin in the terminal stage. Median surviving time is 13.5 months.

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    Treatment:

    It is considered only paliative. At the time of my diagnosis I started treatment with Prednisone at a 2mg/kg/24 h but there was no evidence of improvement. Lomustine (CCNU) is an antineoplastic drug that is used for the dog’s histiocytic disease and may be used in the cat as well at a dosage of 40-60 mg/m2 every 3-6 weeks.

    According to the book Small Animal Clinical Oncology (2012) the skin lesions do not appear to respond to corticosteroid therapy and effective medical treatment as not yet been described.

     

    What happened to Chucky: Chucky was brought for humanly euthanasia after 2 months after the diagnosis because of dyspnea and anorexia. I suspect pulmonary metastasis was present at that time but the owner refused necropsy.

     

     

     

     

CONGENITAL FOLLICULAR PARAKERATOSIS IN A STRAY DOG

48260278_10156282671250432_7554491919091367936_nDVM Diana Anghelescu

Hemopet Clinic

Congenital follicular parakeratosis is a  hereditary disorder affecting females, which suggests a X-linked mode of inheritance, the particular aspect of the condition is not affecting the skin of the nose and footpads unlike other seborrheic disorders.

More about this particular condition can be found in Small Animal Dermatology 7th Edition.

 

 

 

THIS IS DEMInnn

This particular case seemed interesting as it occurs very rarely and even more so there are few cases when owners are willing to do everything they can to keep them in good shape.

Female stray dog presents to our clinic in gravely  bad shape, with serious skin scaling , waxy material clumping together most of her coat, runny eyes and greasy smell.

Comes from a litter of 3 puppies, her other brothers being already twice her weight, with normal skin condition

 

 

Name: Demi

Age: 2 months

Sex: Female, Mixed breed

 

Waxy material concentrated mostly on the edges of the pinnae and on her neck

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Waxy material covering most of her body, creating clumps of hair, general aspect of  a dirty dog

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Due to the severity of her condition, several tests have been performed to exclude potential affections:

-Skin scraping

-Trichogram

-Citology examination

-CDV test

-Otoscopic examination

-Bloodwork

-Giardia Test

-Coproparasitological exam

 

*CDV test – negative

*Otoscopic examination: Billateral ceruminous otitis, with buildup waxy hair follicles inside the ear canal

*Skin scrapings: Negative for ectoparasites

*Cytology from different sites of  affected skin – keratinocyes, corneocytes accompanied with malassesia, no other signs of inflamation present

*Cytology from ears-  copious amounts of ceruminous debris, flourishing with malassesia

*Cytology of the conjunctiva- chains of cocci, macrophages and neutrofiles

*Trichogram revealed normal hair structure, mostly in telogen phase, but embedded in a dense brown waxy material.

*Giardia test- negative

*Moderate Toxocara infestation

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Skin cytology- Lots of corneocytes, rare cocci.

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Otic cytology- Almost 90% Mallassezia levures

After ruling out most of the possible diagnostics, Demi was reexamined closely looking for particularities.

 

-It turned out that the keratosis was affecting especially the external areas of the pinnae, the ventral side of the neck, the entire back and along the limbs and in a smaller part the abdomen.

 

-It was peculiar  that the skin on her nose was normal, as well as her footpads, which led me into thinking about this possible condition, that could only be 100% proved with a skin biopsy.

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Trichogram- Almost all hair follicles were covered in waxy material

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Trichogram- Almost all hair follicles were covered in waxy material

 

-Unfortunately the owner who rescued her did not agree with the biopsy so I had to move onto the therapy without knowing  100%, but shortly after I was sure that this was it.

TREATMENT

-Demi remained at the clinic for 2 months, giving us time to use proper treatment such as:

-Frequent bathing (2-3x/week) with Benzoyl peroxide followed by mixed shamoo (ketohexidine) and a conditioner

-High quality protein diet based on salmon

-Daily Omega 3 and 6 oral suppliments and weekly spot ons.

-Daily Vitamin complex with high ammount of vitamin A and E

-The otitis externa was treated with Clorexyderm oto and Surolan 2x/daily for 14 days

-The conjunctivits was resolved with cloramfenicol drops and daily cleansing of the ocular area – the hyperkeratosis also affected her eyelashes, constantly irritating the eyes, I had to remove each affected lash.

-She received deworming pills and sarolaner to control the endo and ectoparasites.

 

DEMI AFTER 7 DAYS OF TREATMENT

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DEMI AFTER 7 DAYS OF TREATMENT

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DEMI AFTER 7 DAYS OF TREATMENT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DEMI AFTER 14 DAYS OF TREATMENT

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DEMI AFTER 14 DAYS OF TREATMENT

14 days

DEMI AFTER 14 DAYS OF TREATMENT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DEMI AFTER 1 MONTH OF TREATMENT

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DEMI AFTER 1 MONTH OF TREATMENT

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DEMI AFTER 1 MONTH OF TREATMENT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DEMI AFTER 2 MONTHS OF TREATMENT

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DEMI AFTER 2 MONTHS OF TREATMENT

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DEMI AFTER 2 MONTHS OF TREATMENT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSIONS

As you can see, her condition can be kept under control especially if the owner understands that it’s a lifetime condition and she will require special treatment for the rest of her life

 

She had a brief period of time when I decided to see how long it takes until new keratin materials starts to form if I stop the treatment and it only took 6 days for the most affected areas to relapse.

 

It’s a rare condition, I was especially glad to be able to care for her and to see that there are people willing to do everything needed to keep her in good shape

 

I’m pretty sure most of these dogs don’t survive long if in the wild, or are discarded by breeders if not, let’s say Demi was lucky enough to be rescued at such a young age.

 

 

 

 

Demodicosis with secondary pioderma and fungal infection (dermatophytosis).

31218656_1929341830411951_7466975273171288064_nDr Daiana Debreczeni

Veterinaru clinic VitalVet

Oradea, Romania.

 

Information about the patient:

Name: Lala

Sex: Female

Age:10 months

Species: Canis familiaris

Breed: Mix

Medical history

The dog had been treated for 14 days at another veterinary clinic for allergy with steroidal non-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid).On presentation at our clinic the owner complained about the fact that the dog was pruritic and had the lesions presented in the pictures shown below.

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IMG_0988 IMG_0994 IMG_0987

Diagnostic tests:

Skin citology, Gram stain: Gram positive, rod shaped cocci (Staphylococcus spp.);

Wood lamp examination: positive;

Trichogram: swollen, frayed hair with irregular outline; cortex and medulla structure – abnormal;

Deep skin scraping: positive for Demodex.

 

 

Diagnostic: Demodicosis with secondary pioderma and fungal infection (dermatophytosis).

 

Treatment:

 

– Simparica (sarolaner)  1x/month, repeat until 3 consecutive negativ skin scrapings;

  • Marbofloxacin, 21 days;
  • Bathing with therapeutic shampoo (ketokonazol, clorhexidine formulation) every 3 days;
  • Every 3rd bath another therapeutic shampoo was used (benzoyl peroxide);
  • Dermoscent Pyo spot-on, 1x/week, 4 weeks;
  • FortiFlora probiotics.

Topical gel with onion extract and heparin;

Follow up after 1 month:

IMG_1146 IMG_1153 IMG_1154 IMG_1155

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

After 3 months from the initial consultation:

 

48370418_299299174033893_6871986109262331904_n 48392732_266569077305066_4483729918953259008_n 48376231_563513447463071_1721448816659398656_n 48408389_284540192407843_6492582261840412672_n

Generalised demodicosis, cahexia, pioderma with multiple purulent wounds

27657905_1767922679940615_5207571160505979701_nDr. Nadasan Giulia
VetPoint Vest
Arad, Romania

 

Patient: Ava

Species: canine
Age: 6 months old
Environment: found in a forest
Clinical findings: normal temerature, present apetite
                         weight: 7,8 kg
                         Multifocal alopecia
                         Ulcerations and crusting on the neck,head, limbs and trunk
36311521_2252347564779988_378779891753025536_n 37279743_2252347544779990_5950344865513472000_n
Skin scrapings positive for Demodex canis
Diagnosis: generalised demodicosis, cahexia, pioderma with multiple purulent wounds
Cause: malnutrition, imunosupression 37358779_2252347538113324_2271135992675041280_n
Treatment: first day: hair clipping + clorhexidine 4% bath
baths repeated 1×3 days for 2 weeks
co-amoxiclav 12.5 mg/kg, 2x/day 14 days
afloxaner+ milbemicine oxyme (nexgard spectra)
superpremium dog food 4x/day
after 4 weeks: fluralaner (bravecto)
Weight after 3 weeks: 16 kg
In the last pictures you can see how much she has improved after only 3 weeks. Case in progress37349376_2254048444609900_3767674350048641024_n 37388617_2254048884609856_663487681757446144_n

Plasma cell pododermatitis, an imune-mediated dermatosis

27657905_1767922679940615_5207571160505979701_nDr. Nadasan Giulia
VetPoint Vest
Arad, Romania 
Patient: Mufi

Species: feline
Age: 6 years
Environment: household with 15 other cats
Clinical findings: soft, scaly swelling of all the 4 paws, one of them apears with crusts.Only the footpads were afected. The lesions appear to be painful, no pruritus.
Diagnosis: plasma cell pododermatitis, an imune-mediated dermatosis
37296260_2252346914780053_1791624317373513728_n 37303145_2252346888113389_763843415149379584_n 37357272_2252346874780057_3680124293577965568_n
Frequency: rare
Cause: it is idiopatic but asociated with FIV infection
Treatment: steroids.
first 4 days prednisolon-acetate 4 mg/kg i.m, next 7 days at home metilprednisolone 2 mg/ kg

Dermatophytosis (Ringworm)

stef artMarina-Ştefania Stroe, DVM

Romania

History

Dog, yorkshire terrier, F, 6 years old, spayed, vaccinated, dewormed and with fleas and ticks treatment done, 2 kg. She has been scratched for 2 weeks. A new cat was brought home three weeks ago. The cat present areas of alopecia on the tail.

 

WhatsApp Image 2017-09-03 at 15.41.53

fig 1

Circumscribed lesions on the shoulder (Fig. 1) and on ventral cervical region (Fig. 3), areas of round shaped alopecia with erythema, scaling.

Remaining hairs may appear broken off.

WhatsApp Image 2017-09-03 at 15.41.44

fig 2

WhatsApp Image 2017-09-03 at 15.41.52

fig 3

Positive Wood’s lamp examination – apple green glow associated with the root of each hair (Fig. 2)

Matt fur examined with Wood’s lamp:

auricular pavilion (Fig. 4) and cervical ventral (Fig. 5) positive, fluorescent hairs.

WhatsApp Image 2017-09-03 at 15.41.49

fig 4

Picture1

fig 5

A true dermatophyte infection reveals an apple green fluorescence on the roots of the hair.

 

Diagnosis

Picture2

Fig. 6: Microscopic examination – hair with modified structure of medulla and cortex.

Dermatophytosis (Ringworm)

Other differentials (ex. demodicosis, superficial pyoderma).

Wood’s lamp examination: typical yellowish-green fluorescent hair shafts that can be given by Microsporum canis strains; only Microsporum canis fluoresces and in only about half of cases. The Wood’s lamp is useful in establishing a tentative diagnosis of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats but false-negative and false-positive results are common. Definitive diagnosis is established by DTM culture.

Trichogram: misshapen hair shafts infiltrated with hyphae and arthrospores.

Deep skin scraped: negative

Treatment

Topical antifungal treatment applied on whole body twice a week, for 6-8 weeks until the result of the DTM culture is negative. Bathing are recommended to be done with shampoo containing chlorhexidine and an antifungal (ex ketoconazole) after the animal has been clipped. Ointment containing clotrimazole applied locally in thin layer, daily.

Environment: Decontamination measures in the house, where the animal stood (changed and washed carpets, bedding, beds, pillows), taking all measures to remove spores.

Supplements based on Omega 3 and Omega 6, which will help reduce pruritus and inflammation.

Prognosis

The prognosis is good. However, it should not be forgotten that dermatophytosis is a contagious disease that can be transmitted to other animals and humans.

Color dilution alopecia

 

Dr Daniela Bajenaru

Dr Daniela Bajenaru

Bajenaru Daniela (Tazy-vet), Bucharest, Romania

 

 

History

Jack, metis, 5 months, adopted from a shelter and treated against Parvovirus infection.
Prinary lesions: alopecia areas on the head, no other types of lesions were observed.
Two weeks after parvovirosis episode, dermatological problem has begun to progress2

 

Physical examination

Poor quality of the hair coat, the hair was thinner and dry
Symetrical hair loss on the auricular pavilions.
Progressive, partial, patchy alopecia and stubble
Non-inflammatory lesions
Non-pruritic31

 

 

 

Investigations

Wood’s lamp examination
Microscopic examination of the skin scrapings
Hair plucks (trichoscopy)
Fungal culture
Biopsy
Histopathological examination

 

Differential diagnosis

 

Dermatophytosis
Demodicosis
Pattern baldness
Color dilution alopecia and other fololicular dysplasias

Laboratory results

Fig.1 Trichoscopy

Fig.1 Trichoscopy

Wood’s lamp examination- Negative
Microscopic examination of the skin scrapings- Negative
Trichoscopy- irregular distribution and clumping of melanin which distorts the hair shaft.
Fungal culture- Negative
Fig 1,2,3,4- Trichoscopy examination: large grains of melanin which distorts the hair shaft.

 

fig 3

fig4

fig4

fig 2

fig 2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Skin biopsy and histopathology reveal macromelanosomes, melanin clumping and follicular dysplasia.

 histopathology reveal

histopathology reveal

 

Diagnosis

COLOR DILUTION ALOPECIA

Treatment

There is no effective treatment for this disorder. The disease is progressive and incurable.
avoiding excessive brushing and shampooing
antimicrobial and keratinolytic products only when needed A high-quality DIET and essential fatty acids20170330_18223220170330_181007

Evolution

after 6 months

evolution

evolution

evolution

Erythema multiforme or TEN (toxic epidermal necrolysis – toxic shock syndrome)

stef art

Marina-Ştefania Stroe, DVM

Marina-Ştefania Stroe, DVM

Romania

History

Dog, half breed, M, intact, 4 years old, unvaccinated and without treatment for intestinal parasites, fleas and ticks, 10.2 kg.

The main concern was the ophthalmologic problem.

Three weeks ago he had problems with the hind limbs and he had difficulty in moving. Previous treatments: meloxicam, gentamicin, steroidal anti-inflammatory.

The possibility of ingestion of a toxic (plant / substance) is not excluded.

Clinical exam

-white mucous membranes, no lesions in the oral cavity;

-necroses in the auricular pavilions with a visible marginal line, foreskin necrosis, yellow crusts and areas of necrosis predominantly on the posterior limbs, tail, dry-looking fur, which is easily detached;

-after detachment, the skin is denuded, ulcerated, very painful on palpation;

-cutaneous hyperesthesia;

-minimal normal auricular secretion;

-corneal erosions, dry eyes, agglutinated secretions at this level;

-faded cardiac noise; imperceptible pulse;

-rectal examination: doughy feces consistency, normal color;

-abdomen in tension;

-blood pressure (indirect oscilometric metod): 138/102 (112 mmHg).

Picture4Picture3

TESTS

-Chest and abdomen rx and ultrasonography: free fluid; enlarged spleen.

-Ultrasound guided abdominal puncture: yellowish ascitic fluid, orange tint, after spinning small, white deposit. Protein: 1 g / 100 ml.

-Blood tests: low red blood cell counts, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, granulocytosis; elevated liver transaminases, bilirubin and amylase normal values, normal kidney parameters.

-Bleeding time: normal.

-Negative tests for infectious diseases.

-Abdomenocentesis: 335 ml of ascitic fluid and cytological exam: MODIFIED TRANSSUDAT WITH ERYTHROCYTE POLLUTION

Picture6

Fig 10

Picture5

Fig 9

Fig. 9: Cutaneous cytology, direct impression smear from necroses of the pinnae (Fig.10): nonsegmentated immature young neutrophils, lymphocytes, few macrophages in whose cytoplasm are found bacilli, bacterial population predominantly represented by bacilli, but also cocci, oxyphilic cell matrix

Fig. 11: Cutaneous cytology, direct impression smear from yellow scale, tail (Fig. 12): neutrophils in all stages: mature segmented, degenerative stage, but also young with eukromatic nucleus and evident nucleoli, macrophages with basophilic cytoplasm, slightly vacuolized, eucromatic nucleus, nucleic streamming, erythrocyte infiltrate.

Fig. 14: Tape prep from yellow scale, hind limb

keratinocytes on the surface of which are attached cocci, degenerate inflammatory cells

Picture7(1)

Fig 11

Picture8(1)

Fig 12

Fig. 13: Trichogram – hair with normal structure, some hair with degraded cuticle, rap A / T: 4/6, follicular cast, negative for demodex and dermatophytes.

Picture10

Fig 14

Picture9

Fig 13

Superficial and deep skin scrapes: negative.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Picture11

Fig 15

Fig. 15:

-Direct and consensual pupil reflex present;

-Reduced visual acuity;

– Schirmmer test 0 mm / min;

-Florescein test: Positive

Diagnosis: OU Corneal melting ulcer F +

Diagnosis and other differentials

Blood smear, cell morphology: moderate, hypochromic, regenerative anemia,; leukocytosis, neutrophilia, moderate non-specific cellular toxic status, eosinopenia, lymphopenia. In this case, the leukogram (neutrophilia, eosinopenia and lymphopenia) may suggest treatment with corticosteroids, stress, hyperadrenocorticism, severe inflammation (chronic) with various etiologies (viral, bacterial, fungal).

Skin biopsy: histopathological aspects advocate for hyperkeratosis with paracheratosis and chronic inflammatory response involving the epidermis, jonctional area and superficial epidermis.

Final diagnosis

Histopathological aspects may show Erythema multiforme or TEN (toxic epidermal necrolysis – toxic shock syndrome), which is a late reaction, surprised in a chronic, secondary phase due to fibroblast proliferation.

 

The toxic shock syndrome may be a reaction to drugs, chemicals or food

 

Treatment

Enrofloxacin (dose: 5 mg / kg) at 12h po;

Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (dose: 20 mg / kg) at 12h po;

Furosemide (dose: 5 mg / kg) at 12h iv;

Tramadol (dose: 2mg / kg) at 12h iv;

Parenteral nutrition;

Bathing (chlorhexidine);

Acetylcysteine, Tobrex, Corneregel 6-7 times / day (lack of tears).