Dr Svetoslav Penchev
United Veterinary Clinic
Meningocele and meningoencephalocele of the skull are congenital deformities. These deformities, which are observed as cyst-like swellings in the median part of the skull cap, occur very rarely. The intracranial material protrudes through a spontaneous cavity, such as the anterior fontanelle , and they are classified as encephalocele, meningocele, or meningoencephalocele according to the cranial bifida.
History: presented for a large firm mass arising from the right side of the calvarium.
Findings: A dense, mineralized mass with a stippled appearance arising from the right side of the calvarium, with an approximate diameter of 6cm.
Because of the dense appearance of the mass, it’s hard to appreciate the degree of underlying osteolysis just with an Xray
Diagnostic: the radiological appearance it’s of MLTB (multilobular osteochondrosarcoma)
Discussion: MLTB is an uncommon tumour that arises almost exclusively on the flat bones of the skull, mainly on the calvarium, maxilla and mandible and tend to occur in older medium and large breed dogs, although they have been reported in younger and small breed dogs, and have also been reported in cats. It is slow-growing and locally invasive, often recurring after excision. Metastasis may occur
8months old, American bully, Female
History: pain, jaw swelling.
Findings: Periosteal new bone formation, palisading type, affecting the mandible bilateral.
The tympanic bullae and temporomandibular joints are not affected.
Diagnostic: Craniomandibular osteopathy.
Discussion: Craniomandibular osteopathy is a non-neoplastic, proliferative bone disease that affects primarily the mandible, tympanic bullae, frontal bone and occasionally long bones in dogs of about three to eight months.
The proliferation of new bone of the head and jaws decreases as the endochondral ossification of the long bones slows after 7 to 8 months of age.
What is a nasopharyngeal polyp?
Inflammatory polyps that develop at the level of the nasopharynx and the middle ear are non-neoplastic masses which are thought to originate in the epithelial layer of the timpanic bulla or the Eustachian tube. Polyps can also emerge from the epithelium lining the external ear canal in association with otitis.
The etiology of nasopharyngeal polyps is not very clear and congenital pathologies as well as underlining inflammatory diseaseses such as bacterial or viral infections and cronical inflammations are discussed.
Most affected are the cats younger than 3 years of age, but some studies found the average age of the patients to be arround 6-7 years and up to 17,5 years in some cases. The studies citing such advnaced ages implied that polyps developed at a younger age, but remained undiagnosed for a long period.
How to diagnose a nasopharyngeal polyp?
The diagnosis is made based on patient history and clinical examination and confirmed through diagnostic imaging, endoscopy and histopathology.
The clasical clinical signs associated with nasopharyngeal polyps include sneezing andheavy breathing. When a nasopharyngeal polyp reaches a large size (and is located in the nasopharynx) or there are bilateral polyps (extending into the nasal cavities) they cause reduction of the upper airways and are associated with loud breathing noises, nasal discharge, snorring and even vestibular disorders (head tilt, balance disorders). Sometimes nasopharyngeal polyps can be associated with Horner syndrome. Large polyps can lead to difficulties in the act of swallowing and anorexia. Direct or indirect examination (endoscopy and sample retrieval) can be of great help to the clinician in diagnosing this type of pathology (depending on the size and localisation of the polyp). Radiograps (RX), Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are very good diagnostic tools , providing information about the localisation and size of the polyp and have also a high specificity. Diagnostic imaging can also help differentiate between nasopharyngeal polyps and other pathologies that sometimes similar clinical appearance, such as obstructed or stenotic airways, foreign bodies, neoplasia, thickening or osteolysis of the bullae due to infection. Another advantage when using diagnostic imaging is the ability to assess the regional lymphnodes in order to give a more precise prognosis.
9 years old mix breed dog, F
History: not urinating for 24hours, apathy, lethargy
Findings: Loss of serosal detail especially in the ventral abdomen.
There are multiple radiopaque mineral foreign bodies of varying sizes in the ventral abdomen not included in the digestive tract.
Conclusion: ruptured urinary bladder with radiopaque calculi free in the peritoneal cavity.
1 year old, Samoyed, F
History: vomiting, lack of appetite
Findings: On plain radiographs there is a plicated appearance of some of the small intestinal loops on the middle side of the abdomen. The content of this intestinal loops it’s mixt gas-fluid, with variably sized and shaped gas bubbles.
Fallowing contrast medium administration: Delayed gastric emptying time. The bunched and plicated pattern it’s highlighted affectind the duodenum and the jejunum.
Conclusion: Gastrointestinal linear foreign body
Ranko Georgiev1, DVM, Central Veterinary Clinic, Sofia, Bulgaria
Akira is a German shepherd dog, first presented with an ascites and exercise intolerance 4 years ago. A diagnosis of a tricuspid valve dysplasia (TVD) was made after X-rays and echocardiography. Standard therapy for a patient with a TVD and CHF was initiated and kept since. The prognosis given in 2012 was ‘guarded to poor’ concerning the severe generalized cardiomegaly, but four years later the patient is still alive and doing great with a full therapy (attached). The size of the heart is bigger at any of the control X-rays done annually; the size of the right atrium contributing with 75% to the whole heart volume!
Akira, FI GSD, 5yoa, 30kg, TVD – therapy (the patient is with an atrial fibrillation as well)
Furosemide 60mg BID
Spironolacton 25mg SID
Hydrochlorthiazide 25mg SID
Enalapril 10mg BID
Pimobendan 10mg BID
Digoxin 0.2mg BID
Cardiovet 1tabl BID (Taurin, L-Carnitin, Vit. E, Coenzim Q)
Fig.1 to 6
difficulty walking, abnormal conformation Technique: X-ray Findings: There is a generalized reduction in radiopacity of bones (diffuse osteopenia). The cortices of bones are thinned. Coarse trabeculation visible especially in the pelvis. Folding fracture seen in the left scapula. Excessive curvature of the spine. The vertebral body of L4 its shorter and the sacrum has an abnormal curvature, which means folding fractures at this levels. Abnormal alignment of the sternum.
Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism
Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism is seen in young growing animals, particularly kittens, fed a high-meat diet which is low in calcium and high in phosphorus.
10 years old Golden Retriever
History: chronic right inner ear infection
Technique: X-ray, MRI
X-rays: There is thickening and destruction of the right tympanic bullae.
There is marked swelling of the soft tissues of the right aural region. The external ear canal is obliterated and there is calcification of its inner end.
MRI: There is a well-demarcated, expansile mass in the right tympanic bulla, with remodeling and destruction of the right tympanic bone. The right petrous temporal bone and the right inner ear are unclear indicating erosion from the mass. The right external ear canal is not visible. The muscles and tissues on the right side appear markedly hyperintense and there is a fluid filled cavity approximately 6 x 4.4 x 1.9 cm that appears to continue cranially and communicate with right tympanic bulla. This cavity extends from the level of the tympanic bulla and caudally up to the level of the C2 vertebra. The right mandibular salivary gland appears displaced medially from the cavitary lesion.
mass in the right tympanic bulla is consistent with cholesteatoma. Erosion of the right petrous temporal lobe and possible involvement of the inner ear is visible.
Cystic lesion may reflect abcess or haematoma.
Cholesteatoma, a destructive and expanding growth, in the middle ear and/or mastoid process, is a relatively rare cause of otitis media in dogs.
Cholesteatoma are epidermoid cysts lined by a pluristratified keratinizing epithelium containing keratin debris and is characterized by independent and progressive growth, causing destruction of adjacent tissue, especially bone.