PSITTACINE BEAK AND FEATHER DISEASE (PBFD)

22789068_1470407493007067_8559896759169020355_n-e1509292305812Dr Daniela Drumea

Tazyvet

Bucharest, Romania

 

 

Psittacine circoviral disease (PCD) affects parrots and related species and is often fatal to birds that contact it. They can become infected through the oral cavity, nasal passages, and through the cloaca. High concentration of the virus are shed in feather dust from infected birds.

57852425_424073691709429_468459032231804928_n 57852457_319448765410927_6911369314394177536_n 58372676_427288701431521_6386664932347215872_n 58373437_1239057269605106_2334186262904176640_n 58374865_333792717340429_579808984253333504_n 58376590_2293347837571650_5599859148859637760_n 58419526_804245556626280_8224210503178649600_n 58419883_407021730151608_4645924767566659584_n

Bobita, was one of those unfortunate birds. He is a juvenile male cockatiel, bought from a pet-shop about 3 months ago, when he was 4 months.

The owner noticed that the bird is singing more and more rarely, and when he does, the voice is hoarse. Beside this, he also noticed that the animal is losing his feathers. The owner thought it might be a hypovitaminosis, so he started to give him vitamins. When he noticed bleeding on the base of the feathers he scared and made the decision to bring him to the vet.

Clinical presentation:

During the consultation we noticed that the bird easily loses his plumage, he does not have any destructive feather behaviors or feather picking. He had a poor feather quality, they were more discolored than normal and the shape was abnormally (curved and stunting of the feathers). A part of the feathers on the head was lost. Feather dystrophy, hemorrhage within the pulp and circumferential constrictions of the feather shaft were observed. The beak started to pigment and there was a slight exfoliation, claws were longer than normal.

Differential diagnosis

Ectoparasites, viruses (circovirus [PBFD], polyomavirus), genetic conditions. Other factors that may negatively affect feather condition are low humidity, exposure to aerosols, cigarette smoke or other toxins, malnutrition and chronic systemic illnesses (hepatopathy, nephropathy).

Diagnosis

Microscopic examination of the pulp and feather were performed. In the examined samples there were no evidence of fungal, bacterial or parasitic infections. A PCR exam was performed from growing feathers pulp to detect PBFD virus DNA.

A positive PBFD- PCR result has been received.58004052_813644272342082_91552377580027904_n 58682417_2826329927441468_8642168322101608448_n 58629935_602178353581986_2865223522689482752_n

Treatment and prognosis

Because the disease is not in a very advanced stage supportive treatment focused on the stabilization of the immune system, a balanced diet and a stress free environment was recommended. The most important prevention is the hygiene of the cage and educating the owner how to disinfect, because they represent a risk   of spreading the disease.

Feather loss might be acceptable, but beak and claws changes are painful and usually a reason for euthanasia

Wound management part 2: The approach of traumatic wounds

 

 

51559132_952390804967417_8511078558653743104_nFlorin Delureanu

DVM, MRCVS

March 2017

 

Introduction

From a general point of wiev, a traumatic injury is defined as a physical damage caused by an external factor. Even if we talk about a road traffic accident, a burn or projectile injuries, all of them represents a trauma for the body. Because the first part of this series described the physiologic process of healing and how can wounds be recognized according to the phase in which they are, the second part will highlight how wounds can be addressed.

Initial assessment of the patient

Due to various types of trauma, the patient should be treated according to the requirements. The patient can be unstable after a road traffic accident, after a fighting with another dog or can be bright, alert if superficial lesions are present (patients that develop wounds due to scratching). If the patient is not stable the plan must be focused first on stabilization by checking the major function (A- airway, B- breathing, C-cardiovascular, etc) followed by a good pain control and assess the life-threatening injuries. In an emergency situations is recommended to cover the wounds with sterile gauze or another type of sterile material to provide haemostasis and to protect against another contaminants that are considered already present in the wound.

Evaluation of the wound

When the patient became comfortable, a wound evaluation must be performed. There are some factors that can help the surgeon to take a decision regarding the local management. Therefore, the following should be considered:

  • the degree of contamination;
  • when the injury took place;
  • the degree of tissue ischaemia;
  • the amount of tissue loss;
  • type of wound (burn, snake bite, etc).

About the length of time between the production of the trauma and the presentation of the patient to the clinic and the degree of contamination, wounds are classified as clean, clean-contaminated, contaminated and infected (see details in part1).               Because every injury has as a result blood loss, the tissue exposed may have different aspect and can help with the prognosis. The first aspect of the wound may be misinterpreted due to colour and integrity of the surrounding tissues. Many times the skin is crushed due to a powerfull trauma and just small superficial wounds may be present. If at first presentation the skin looks normal and the small wounds have a clean aspect and the trauma happend in less than 4-6 hours not every time will be a good ideea to do a primary closure. Some wounds may have good viability but because the tissues are crushed can develop necrosis and some wounds may have an ischaemic aspect but if the surrounding tissues are not traumatised the evolution can be favorable. As a conclusion, not every time a primary closure will be a wright decision, sometimes wounds need 2-4 days to “settle” depending of the type of trauma.                The amount of tissue loss will guide the surgeon to use specific dressings according to depth and length if second intention healing will be elected.               Regarding wound type, some specific considerations must be taken. For example, bite wounds should be explored whereas for an early frostbite wound the patient must be rewarmed first.

54522069_395894501211226_3114084351705350144_n

Fig1. Basic wound management in six simple steps (Atlas of Small Animal Wound Management and Reconstructive Surgery, 4th Edition Michael M. Pavletic, April 2018

As an approach, wounds can be managed by closure (primary closure, delay primary closure, secondary closure already described in part 1) or can be left for second intention healing.

Second intention healing occurs when a wound is left to heal by contraction and epithelialization. All wounds can be left to heal by second intention but this process may fail at a point or may end without providing a functional outcome. There are some reasons why not every time a complete healing by second intention (especially large wounds and in high motion area-joints, axillary, inguinal) is not recommended: the granulation tissue is very fragile and easly abraded; wound contraction, sometimes excessive, may impede normal function.

Some wounds may fail to completely reepithelialize. Open wound management is indicated in dirty, traumatized, contaminated wounds in which cleansing and debridement is necessary.

Wound preparation – cleansing

To prevent further contamination of the wound in the time of cleaning, all equipement must be sterile. Prior to application of topical treatments, the wound bed must be properly prepared. Initially the wound must be protected with a sterile lubricant (eg. K-Y sterile gel) or sterile gauze soaked in warm saline. After protection, the hair that surrounds the wound must be clipped. The hair represent one of the main foreign body that can imped wound healing in a clean wound. Next, lavage the wound with a proper solution under 7-8 psi to remove the surface contaminants and in the end dry the skin surrounding the wound. This may facilitate the adhesion of the dressing and also will prevent maceration of the skin if the wound is highly exudative.

  • Wound lavage: many lavage solutions are availabile. Most popular are
fig 2

Fig.2 Basic kit for wound lavage composed by seringe, 3 way-stop cock, 18G needle, intravenous tube and 500ml bag of sterile saline.

clorhexidine, betadine, Ringer’s and sterile saline. A study from human medicine compared tap water with sterile saline for wound irrigation and showed no difference in occurance of infection. Clorhexidine is availabile in many concentrations (4%, 2%, 0,5%) but for open wounds 0,05%  solution should be used. To obtain this concentration, 25ml of clorhexidine 2% must be mixed with 1liter bag of solution. Betadine may be a good option to use in wounds located on the face, particulary near eyes because clorhexidine have very toxic effect if will get in contact with the eyes. Betadine also must be diluted to a proper concentration (0,1%-1% solution). To obtain this solution, 1-10ml of 10% betadine must be mixed with 1 liter bag of solution. As a comparation, clorhexidine is not activated by anorganic matter while as betadine is inactivated by anorganic matter such as blood or exudate. Also a 0,01% clorhexidine gluconate with tris-EDTA solution was described for wound lavage. This combination help lyse Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Proteus vulgaris. Recently polyhexanide/betaine (Prontosan), a solution or gel containing 0.1% of the antimicrobial agent polyhexanide and 0.1% of the surfactant betaine was described as a lavage solution in wounds with good results.

 

One of the key of this procedure is not necessarily the type of solution used, but the amount used. A copious lavage of 500-1000ml is recommended. The ideal pressure of 7-8 psi can be provided by different systems. The most cheapest way is to use an 18G needle, a 3 way stop cock, saline bag, 35-60ml seringe and an intravenous tube. Pressure cuff also can be attached to the solution bag and 300mm Hg pressure can be maintained to provide 7-8 psi in the time of lavage. If the pressure is too high, the healthy tissue can break; if the pressure is under 7-8 psi the surface contaminants may not be removed completely.

After cleansing, if the wound is not considered contaminated, primary closure is indicated. Most of traumatic wounds need also debridement.

54437071_1199173830241222_8271066268505735168_n

Fig. 3 Wet to dry bandage applied on a wound located on the ventral aspect of the metatarsal area in a cat as a nonselective form of debridement

Debridement: can be selective or nonselective. Usually chronic wounds needs debridement but also fresh wounds which present devitalized tissue. Surgical and mechanical debridement are considered nonselective forms. For surgical debridement different surgical instruments can be used (scalpel, scissors, etc.) and adherent bandages (wet-to-dry / dry-to-dry) are used for mechanical debridement.

 

Surgical debridement must be performed in layers, step by step until the necrotic/ devitalized tissue has been removed and blood can be visible from the wound edges or from the bed. An en block surgical debridement can be performed but this can be limited due to location and size. The wound margins should be closed with suture material or towel clamps can be applied for a temporary closure and after the entire wound is excised, including a margin of healthy tissue. Wound irrigation is also considered a nonselective debridement.There is no strong evidence that cleansing wounds increases healing or reduces infection, but it is almost universally recommended.

Three forms of selective debridement are described: enzymatic, autolytic, biosurgical/ biotherapeutic.

 

 

  • Enzymatic debridement – includes proteolytic enzymes that break down the necrotic
54408491_1829146833855841_342684561395679232_n

Fig.4 An example of ointment with papain and urea used for enzymatic debridement

tissue. Papain, trypsin, chymotripsin, fibrinolysine, collagenase, urea are the most common enzymes used for enzymatic debridement. Castor oil, balsam of Peru, desoxyribonuclease are also described.

 

As an advantage, they will not damage healthy tissue. This type of debridement is used less and less nowadays in wound management because is less effective and needs a long period of time to have the proper effect. Surgical debridement may facilitate enzymatic debridement.

  • Autolytic debridement – is the most preferate selective debridement. Is less painfull in

compare with the other types. This method involves maintaining a moist environement on the wound so that natural enzymatic “phenomens” can take place. Hydrogels, hydrocolloids and foams are very common used to support autolytic debridement and will be described later as moisture retentive dressings. Due to their high osmolarity, honey and sugar can also be used also for autolytic debridement. They attract the fluid and will keep a moist environement.

 

  • Biosurgical debridement – refers to usage of maggots (Lucilia Sericata, Phaenicia

Sericata) and have and FDA approval since 2004. The maggots produce enzymes that dissolve the necrotic tissue and don’t interact with healthy tissue, that’s why the debridement is selective. They are applied in the wound as larva stage (4-7 days of life) and can be left in place 3-4 days. At the moment of application the larvae have 2-3 mm and in 4 days grow until 10-15mm. The optimal activity of the maggots depends on the wound pH. They don’t survive in an acidic environment. An 8.5 pH in the wound is preffered. Each maggot may consume up to 75mg of necrotic tissue every day. They cannot penetrate dry necrotic tissue or eschar therefore are not indicated for this situation.

 

 

Moisture retentive Dressings (MDR’s)

Transepidermal water loss represents the the amount of fluid lost by the normal skin. In humans with intact skin the transepidermal water loss is 4–9 g/m2/h. In partial and full-thickness wounds the water loss increase up to 90 g/m2/h. Dressings that have a low moisture vapor transmission value, less than 35 g/m2/h, are considered moisture retentive. In humans was found that the dressing with a water vapor transmission rate of 2028.3 ± 237.8 g/m2/24h was able to maintain an optimal moisture content for the proliferation and regular function of epidermal cells and fibroblasts in a three-dimensional culture model.                The process of wound healing can be accelerated by a moist environment. MDR’s retain water and hydrate the tissue and facilitate natural autolytic debridement. All wounds need to be covered with a specific dressing to maintain a proper moisture until full epithelialization otherwise the granulation tissue will get dry and eschar will occur. MDR’s are availabile on the market in various sizes, shapes, thicknesses, with or without adherent margins. They must be applied on top of the wound as a first layer and after can be covered with the second (absorbent layer) and third layer (protective layer).

55521004_2192459434348788_3535934312941617152_n

Fig.5 Lateral view of a polyurethanic foam. Noticed the convex shape that the foam acquired after beign moistened. Due to this particularity this dressing have a good contact with the wound bed.

Polyurethane foams: is a porous nonadherent dressing that can be used in moderate to high exudative wounds. It absorb several times it’s weight. Is recommended to be used in sterile wounds and regularly must be changed every 3-5 days. With time, the period in which the dressing must be kept in place will change according to the amount of exudate. Some articles described that can be used also over infected wound bed but must be changed every 24 hours.

 

Can or cannot have adhesive borders and does not transform in gel. It is contraindicated in wounds with low exudate and not recommended in areas with bony proeminence because is very soft and cannot protect the damaged area. In compare with hydrocolloids and alginates, foams are less effective for autolytic debridement.

Alginates (calcium alginate): have high absorbtive properties. It absorbs 20-30 times its weight in fluid. In contact with the exudate, alginates transforms in gel. Is derived from brown seaweed and is recommended in high exudative wounds. It promotes haemostasis and Ca2+ stimulates macrophages and fibroblast activity. Is not recommended to be used in low exudative wounds.

55491724_2245338905729035_4329870188817154048_n

Fig.6 Calcium alginate appearance. Left picture represents calcium alginate sheet applied on dorsal and ventral aspect of metatarsal area in a cat with a degloving injury after surgical debridement; Right picture represents the aspect of calcium alginate 24 hours later in the same patient; Note the transformation from dry fibers in gel and the proximal area in which the dressing was absorbed (yellow arrow).

54434198_813769725659050_4294598044776660992_n

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

As a presentation form, alginates are used in flat sheets and can be applied even in narrow cavities. On the market alginates can be found in combination with silver, zinc or honey.

Hydrogels: are indicated in low exudative wounds. They donate fluid to wound but can also absorbe it. Can be found in two presentation forms-sheet and gel. Contains 60-95% water and the cooling effect may decrease pain. Is not indicated in high exudative wounds because maceration can occur. Overgranulation has been reported after usage of hydrogels in excess. In cavitary wounds the gel form is inficated due to better contact. Hydrogels can also be used to soak the dry necrotic tissue.

54419121_304340596894037_5926477775199272960_n

Fig.7 Left picture describes hydrogel sheet used on the lateral aspect of digit IV in a dog with and abrasion wound. The wound had partial epithelialization and a small area with granulation tissue and the level of exudate was low. In the right picture gel shaped hydrogel is placed on Primapore.

55597519_2356707577946837_6316435894865756160_n

Various forms of hydrogels combinations are availabile: with hyaluronic acid, alginate, collagen, etc. Can be left in place 3-4 days in non-infected wounds. They are permeable to gas and water and have proven to be a less effective bacterial barrier than occlusive dressings.

 

 

 

 

 

Hydrocolloids: have in composition may constituents like sodium arboxymethylcellulose,

gelatin, pectin, and polyisobutylene. Gelatin, pectin, elastomers, alginates, silver, and other materials can be added to these substrates. In contact with exudate it transform in gel and maintain a moist environment. Hydrocolloids are indicated in wounds with low to moderate exudate.

Sheets, powder and paste are the form of presentation. In compare with alginates, foams and hydrogels, the contact face of hydrocolloids is adherent but just on the skin, not on the granulation bed. Regarding permeability, hydrocolloids are semi-permeable to water vapour and oxygen but not permeable to bacteria and other contaminants. Is not recommended in infected wounds. May cause overgranulation.

54514139_356556011613436_3825262809151700992_n 54798374_375870166339962_7150276900298948608_n 54433025_262213321326943_64787537255727104_n

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fig. 8 Different aspects of hydrocolloid dressing. (a) Fresh hydrocolloid applied on a mild exudative wound in a dog; the dressing have is brown and opaque. (b) View of the dressing 5 days after application on the dorsal metacarpal area in cat. Note the brown dark colour that hydrocolloid achieved. (c) Dressing removal in the same patient in the same day. Note the yellow, gelly and bright aspect due to granulation bed contact.

 

 

Miscellaneous dressings

Honey – called also natural dressing, they are composed by glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose, amino acids, vitamins, minerals and enzimes. Honey is the most popular product used as a topical treatment for wounds; have an antimicrobial effect due to low pH (3-4.5 ), release of small amounts of hydrogen peroxide or the presence of methyglyoxal. Honey promotes autolytic debridement and reduce oedema due to high osmolarity. It was demonstrated that honey have effect against a multitude of bacteria including Pseudomonas spp., MRSA and E. coli. Composition of honey does vary according to the geographical source. Many types of honey are availabile, from raw honey to medical grade. Manuka honey (Leptospermum scoparium) that originates from New Zealand is the most common used in humans and animals for wound care. Medical grade Manuka honey is recommended despite raw honey because raw honey may contain bacteria and fungal contaminants including anaerobic spore‐forming organisms. Recently was developed a new type of honey was developed which is not manuka honey. SurgihoneyRO is an antimicrobial wound gel utilising bioengineered honey to deliver Reactive Oxigen and is superior to Manuka honey. It cames in a variety of form such as gels, sheets, in combination with alginates or simple gauze. Honey is recommended in wounds that needs debridement and is not recommended to be applied over the granulation tissue. Despite the multitude of benefits, the quality of the evidence is variable.

Silver dressings– should be used when infection is suspected. Has been shown that silver ions have an antibacterial effect in contact with the exudate. Because silver ions are activated by a moist environment, is not indicated to be used in wounds with moderate-to-low exudate. There are some evidence that suggest delay healing if silver dressings are used in acute wounds. Is available as gel, sheets, impregned in alginates, foams and hydrocolloids and can be left in contact with the wound up to 7 days. Silver is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent that is effective against bacteria, fungi, viruses, and yeast. It has also been proven to be active against MRSA and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) when used at an appropriate concentration. Silver destroy bacteria due to multiple mechanisms: disrupts bacterial cell walls, inactivates bacterial enzymes, and interferes with bacterial DNA synthesis. Therefore bacterial resistance has yet to be documented, although reports of isolated Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have shown resistance to silver in vitro.  Despite the benefits, some articles concluded that is still a lack of evidence about usage of topical silver and silver dressings for treatment of infected or contaminated chronic wounds.

Collagen dressing: are available in different forms such as granules, powders, sheets, pastes, gels. The collagen from these products derived from bovine, porcine, equine, piscean or avian source. Collagen has been widely used in cosmetic surgery, as a healing aid for burn patients for reconstruction of bone. Is the main structural protein in the extracellular space. Is resistant against bacteria and in this way it helps to keep the wound sterile. Platelets interact with the collagen to make a hemostatic plug. Collagen based dressings need a secondary dressing layer to maintain a moist environment. Products that contain collagen promotes angiogenesis and stimulates fibroplasia. Recently, usage of Tilapia skin fish in veterinary medicine and blue shark skin in human medicine for burns were described with promising results.

Silicone dressings– are used mainly in humans to reduce the hypertrophic scar. The mechanism of action of silicone dressings is not fully understood. It is believed that silicone due to occlusive effect, decrease the oxygen of the tissue until anoxia, environment in which fibroblasts cannot have a normal function and undergo apoptosis. In humans has been shown to help reduce trauma and pain. Silicone dressings were tested in rabbits, rats and horses. Silicone dressings are nontraumatic and the contact surface is adherent but just on the skin surrounding, not to the granulation bed. A comparison between silicone dressing and silicone gel in a controlled trial for treatment of keloids and hypertrophic scar. Compared to the untreated controls, all of the measured parameters including scar size and induration were reduced in both silicone and nonsilicone-treated groups. In 2005, silicone dressing was used with good outcomes in horses with exuberant granulation tissue. In 2017, a review of silicone gel sheeting and silicone gel for the prevention of hypertrophic scars and keloids concluded that was statistical significance in the effectiveness of both of them but most of the trials had poor quality with high or uncertain risk of biases.

Borate glass nanofiber – was developed in 2010 by human engineers and is recognized to have regenerative properties on bones and soft tissues due to stimulation of angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Two borate glasse with (1605) or without (13-93B3) CuO and ZnO were studied along with the silicate-based glass, 45S5 for the potential effect on vascular endothelial growth factor. The study demonstrate that silicate glass is inferior to borate glass. Copper and zinc ions together with calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, etc., stimulate the proliferation of human endothelial and osteoblast-like cells, promote angiogenesis, and stimulate vascular endothelial

growth factor secretion. Osteogenesis is encouraged because the fibers convert to hydroxyapatite.

54523641_367624424087613_5827889279115722752_n

Fig.9 Borate based glass nanofiber. Macroscopic aspect, “cotton-candy” like (left picture) and electron microscopy (right picture).

In 2017, borate glass nanofiber was evaluated for treatment of full thickness wounds in six dogs. The study had many criteria: wound cause and location, type and duration of previous wound management, time to granulation tissue formation, time to complete wound healing, subsequent procedures if applicable, outcome, and complications associated with treatment. With a “cotton candy” aspect and soft texture, the borate glass can be applied to any defect, even in deep wounds can be packed. Is not expensive and did not require hospitalization. A veterinary product was developed and is available (RediHeal) for cats, dogs and horses. Because promotes bone growth, the product can be packed also in the defect which result after dental extraction. After application, the fibers degrades at a controllable rate and release ions.

 

Wet-to-dry Vs MDR’s

 

·         Wet to dry bandages: first they overhydrate and after dessicate the wound bed. As

a result, cells involved in the healing process will lose their function. Because is a nonselective debridement form, when wet to dry bandages are removed normal cells (WBCs, macrophages, granulation tissue) are pulled off with the surface contaminants. The environmental bacteria can penetrate the gauze.

 

Because is adherent, in the time of removal will be not comfortable for the patients due to pain sensation. Small gauze fibers can remain in the wound bed, will act as a foreign body and will extend the inflammatory phase. They are not expensive but if are used as a sole treatment for wounds, the cost may increase semnificatively due to delay healing and daily replacement.

 

·         Moisture retentive dressings: during the inflammatory phase, support selective

54437443_2574715225903155_8136169536241008640_n

Fig.9 Characteritics of an ideal dressing

autolytic debridement and promote healing because will keep a moist environment. They are nonadherent and nonpermeable for bacteria  so the infection rate is lower in compare with wet to dry bandages. They also require replacement every 3-6 days (depends on the product and the wound appearance) therefore decrease the costs for total wound care. Because MDRs are occlusive or semioclusive in nature, they decrease the pH and oxygen tension in wound and, as a result, WBCs are attracted, angiogenesis and collagen formation are stimulated and inhibit bacteria. MDRs are comfortable  not painfull for the patient when are removed from the wound bed. Also they prevents dessication and necrosis.

There is no dressing that meets all the conditions and cannot be considered that one is better than the other. The aim is to use the correct dressing according to the needs of the wound. Therefore, the physiology of wound healing needs to be understood. As an example, even if gauze (wet-to-dry) have many negative consequences, it can be used for debridement as part of wound management and is very effective but contraindicated in the proliferative phase while calcium alginate (MDRs) is less effective and can dessicate the wound bed when is applied on dry wounds.

 

Regarding moisture, a simple general rule is considered: exudative wounds need dressing that will absorb the fluid and dry wounds need dressings that will deliver moisture. It is detrimential to assess the volume and the appearance of the exudate each time the bandage is changed. A wound with a favorable evolution will produce less and less exudate with a clear clear aspect.

Alternative therapies

 

            Wounds have different behavior and the evolution depends on many factors (localization, degree of contamination, size, etc.). In particular situations, wounds may not heal by second intention or they may decrease in size in the time of treatment but in some cases the proliferation may stop. If surgical closure cannot be achieved, alternative therapies may be considered. As an example, vaccum assisted closure (negative pressure therapy), laser therapy or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) should be considered.

Pink teeth in a 10 months old Cane Corso

 

30595139_1823183557733595_5657871534119714816_nDr Elena Carmen Nenciulescu

Bucharest, Romania

 

 

 

Hera, a 10 months old female Cane Corso, was presented on the 15th of October 2018 for a dental consultation. She had pink teeth, a strong halitosis, „wasn’t eating like she used to” and showed signs of pain (didn’t let anyone touch her mouth or look at her teeth).

IMAGE 2

Crown fracture with pulp exposure 304 and 404

IMAGE 1

Image 1 – Abnomal density of the cortical bone

IMAGE 3

Image 3 – X-ray of the rostral maxilla

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X-rays showed a very large pulp cavity in all teeth, very thin dentin and enamel, crown fracture with pulp exposure in 304 and 404 (Image 2), but also an abnomal density of the cortical bone in the mandible (Image 1) . The owner reported that the deciduous teeth were pink too.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The dog previosly had 2 surgeries in both elbows in another clinic (bilateral elbow dysplasia). Hera is also blind with both eyes (there is no vascularization in the eyes).

Antibiotics (amoxicillin with clavulanic acid 20 mg/kg/12 h) and analgesia (meloxicam 0.1 mg/kg/day) were immediately started and the patient was scheduled for a dental procedure a week later.  CBC and routine biochemistry were normal.

The dental examination under aneshesia revealed 6 crown fractures with pulp exposure (109, 110, 209, 210, 304, 404). We extracted these teeth and tried to seal  with the remaining ones. The dental extractions were very difficult, but the healing was good (as you can see in the images from the second dental procedure).

cof

Image 4 – Complicated fracture 304

IMAGE 5

Image 5-404 pulpar granuloma and 404 extraction

IMAGE 6

Image 6- 404 pulpar granuloma and 404 extraction

At this first dental procedure (Images 4 – 11), we took a blood sample to see what were the vitamine D3, calcium and parathoyroid hormone levels. When results came, we found out that Hera had hypoparathyroidism (PTH level was 1.2 pg/ml, almost 16 times lower then the physiologic range) and recomanded a thyroid ultrasound, which is not availiable unfortunately.

Also Vitamine B12 was low, so the patient recieved treatment for that too.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

After the first procedure, the recovery was fast, the dog started to eat the next day, but only very soft food.

cof

Image 8- Clinical view of the right maxilla

oznor

image 9-Clinical view of the right maxilla

oznor

Image 10 – Clinical view of the right mandible

cof

Image 11 – Clinical view of the left maxilla

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

image 12

Image 12 – Clinical view of the right maxilla and mandible – tooth wear of all teeth is more pronounced

image 13

Image 13 – Clinical view of the lower incisors that are even „pinker” then the first time

The second dental procedure (Images 12 – 16) together with  the ovariohysterectomy took place on the 23rd of February 2019, when we performed extractions of 208 and 209 retained roots and full 405 was extracted for histopathological examination (that will be performed at Histovet by Dr. Teodoru Soare). The recovery was even better than the first one. Hera received clindamycin 11 mg/kg/day, 7 days and meloxicam 0.1 mg/kg/day, 4 days. Unfortunatelly, because a second set of radiographs were not available for this dental intervention.

image 14

Image 14 – Closer look of the right maxilla

image 15

Image 15 – Left upper premolars

image 16

Image 16 – Left maxilla and mandible

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The dental pathology of this patient might be a very rare congenital dental condition called „shell teeth”, in which teeth have large pulp chambers and insufficient coronal dentin. The treatment of this dental disease is full mouth extractions, but given the very high level of difficulty of the extractions, we chose to extract only the fractured teeth. It may be a consequence of a congenital hypoparathyroidism, which would also explain the other pathological signs (blindness, bilateral elbow dysplasia).

Hera is a very interesting case with high didactic value. She remains supervised for evaluation of her clinical evolution.

Both interventions took place at QincyVet and were performed together with Dr. Raluca Zvorasteanu.

Broncholithiasis in cats

edf

Dr Svetoslav Penchev

Unites Veterinary Clinic

Varna, Bulgaria

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 years old male, not castrated British shorthair cat with history of tetraparesis was referred to the clinic for Computed Tomography. Mineral-attenuating endobronchial lesions were detected in Thorax as accidental finings in spinal CT. The finding is specific for broncholitiasis.

CT  :

1

1

 

3

3

2

2

4

4

5

5

 

 

CT features: Multifocal mineral-attenuating endobronchial lesions in cranial and middle right and cranial left lung lobe are present. There is mild generalized thickening of the bronchial walls and consolidation of right middle lung lob with regional bronchiectasis

 

 

 

6

6

7

7

8

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

9

10

10

11

11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X-rays

23

1

24

2

 

 

 

X-ray features: Multiple mineral opacity nodules with irregular margins are present within left and right cranial and right middle lung lobe. The largest of which lies within the right middle lung lobe and interstitial patter in this region is present.

 

 

 

Broncholithiasis is very rare condition in cats and is defined as the presence of calcified or ossified material within the bronchial lumen. Only four cases of broncholithiasis in cats have been reported in the veterinary literature. Normal this condition is associated with lower airway inflammation, but in this case the owner does not report for respiratory problems. Broncholithiasis is an uncommon condition, which should be considered as a differential diagnosis for cats with chronic respiratory disease. Affected cats may develop broncholithiasis secondary to a diffuse inflammatory lower airway disease with mineralisation of secretions in the airways.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vet Business Academy, an amazing association, open to give us the knowledge and help us to make our life better

24909813_388955481530328_7583228791966007145_nWe are really happy that more and more veterinarians are aware of the needing, to improve our knowledge in a field that is really far of our medical way of thinking, because if we are aware or not, we are managers of our own business. So, we should be open and to start learning how to improve this field.

 

And we are lucky because we have the sources and the people who can teach us.

One of these opportunities is Vet Business Academy, an amazing association, open to give us the knowledge and help us to make our life better.

30516038_437170620042147_3629154688315686912_n

Dr Cristian Marinescu-the president of Vet Business Academy

VET BUSINESS ACADEMY

  1. What is our desire?

 

  • Create a vet business community and provide access to business education.
  • Provide knowledge and increase vets’ competencies in areas like:
    • People management, Communication, Marketing-merchandising, Financial knowledge.

 

  • Improve vet the efficiency of vet clinics by providing better services to clients and improving internal processes.

 

 

  • Training and workshops to improve vet competencies in business areas.

 

  • Vet consultancy in the business field.

vba 1 vba 2

Why us and why now?

 

  • Practical experience in vet clinic management

 

  • Experience in vet industry , local and international.

 

  • Experience in fields like: marketing, communication, planning, business administration and people management.

 

  • Good relationship with KOLs, Universities and local authorities.

 

  • Knowledge of vet legislation and experience in the prediction of future vet business trends.

 

  • Coaching, Leadership, Critical thinking.

 vba 3

OUTCOME

  • Become more than a Vet clinic
    • Provide a consultative relationship model
    • Build effective TEAM
    • Become preferred Vet Clinic for Vets & Pet-Owner’s
    • Differentiate in a crowded market

 

In 2018 the association has organized plenty of events in Romania.

  • Workshops : Communication , People Management, Merchandising , Financial intelligence
  • Class – “Mastering Public Speaking”
  • Management presentations on AMVAC Congress –Dr.Lowell Ackerman
  • Provide the management string in different vet events

vba 4

 

If we realize or not, we are part of the economically world, we sale service and together with our love to the animals and our professional, we are responsible about our employers, for their financial comfort and work environment. So, it is time to start learning to be good in this as well

Learn and Travel-Dr Renata Jelic from Serbia in Central Vet Clinic in Sofia, Bulgaria

 

53835429_2559867640708543_1925608025490456576_nDr Renata Jelic from Serbia has done her externship in Central Vet Clinic in Sofia, Bulgaria

learn and travel

 

 

 

 

Lets see what she said about it:

 

“I would like to start by thanking Dr. Luba Gancheva and Vets on The Balkans for giving me a wonderful opportunity to spend a week in one of the best veterinary clinic on the Balkans. received_625044874599015Together with my colleague I was warmly welcomed by Dr. Ranko Georgiev, the head of Central Veterinary Clinic in Sofia, a great expert and an exceptional man who provided accommodation for us and, more importantly, gave us free access to all parts of his clinic. And what a clinic it is. It spreads on three levels, all well organized and fully equip, in order to provide the best possible comfort and care for pet patients. Dr. Georgiev when out of his way to make sure that I used my time efficiently, constantly encouraging me to ask and participate. His help is immeasurable. Central Veterinary Clinic is the best vet clinic I ever had a chance to be a part of, even for a short while. One week is certainly not enough to experience and learn all that the great and professional staff was willing to teach me, but the knowledge and experience gained will sure help me improve as a veterinarian. One vet that I would like to give a special thanks to is Dr. Hristina Shukerova,received_555494404860695 received_2472585622815978 a person I spend most time with. She was always there for all my questions, she answered them professionally but with a touch of human emotion which made me fell as a part of the group, as a part of their team. As Dr. Shukerova’s field of expertise is cardiology, a field I wish to specialize in, she was able to help me greatly improve my knowledge in this area of veterinary practice. I will conclude this short look back on my week spent at Central Veterinarian Clinic in Sofia by sending my love and lots of smiles to all the staff working in this clinic, with a special big “Thank you” to Dr. Ranko Georgiev, Luba Gancheva and Vets on The Balkans for making this externship possible.”received_398377974256240 received_445330466039904

We would like to express our gratitude to Dr Ranko Georgiev and the whole team of Central Vet clinic for make this possible!

 

Rare case of Feline Progressive Histiocytic Disease (FPH) – A case report

41768527_2349628575051886_8602568388625039360_nDr Giulia Nadasan

Vet Point Vest

Arad, Romania

This is the story of Chucky, a senior 9 year old european male neutered cat. He used to live in an outdoor environment. His medical history is very long, since he was young he had different pathologies from infectious diseases, chronic urolithiasis ended with urethrostomy and a femur fracture osteosintesis.

Chucky was a well monitored patient with all his dewormings and vaccinations on time.

Chucky was presented for a clinical consult because the owner noticed something on his skin. On the first clinical presentation I found two skin lesions (papules) about 0.5 cm diameter non ulcerated on the dorsal thorax, well circumscribed that made my think of piogranulomatosis pioderma. I started a treatment with amoxicillin + clavulanic acid and asked them to come back after 7 days. At the second consult, Chucky looked exactly like in the pictures, he was suffering of a generalized nodular ulcerated dermatitis.54515532_560264067813760_3040561606883803136_n

A skin biopsy was made the next day and the sample was sent to the histopathology lab.

 

Pathology findings : the superficial and profound dermis are infiltrated with neutrophils, macrophages, histyocitic mesenchymal cells with atypical mitosis and eosinophils and also areas of necrosis and hemorrhage (histovet.ro) = piogranulomatosis pioderma with histiocytic neoplastic component

 

DIAGNOSIS : Progressive non-epiteliotropic feline histiocytic disease

 

 

Biological facts:

Histiocytes are mesenchymal cells derived from the bone marrow as stem cells. They either become macrophages or dendritic cells (antigen presenting cells APC). Dendritic cells can be also divided into Langerhan cells, interstitial dendritic cells or interdigitating dendritic cells.

Using immunophenotyping methods the histyocites were found expressing CD1a, CD1c, CD18 and MHC class 2 molecules used specific for dendritic cells and not Langerhan cells.

 

Epidemiology:

Feline Progressive Histiocytic disease is a benign skin neoplasia in humans and dogs but it is extremely rare in cats. In a 2006 study conducted by Affolter and Moore (VetPathol.43(5)646-55) it is said that except some case reports this disease has not been characterized in cats. They analysed the cases of 30 cats with FPH and summarized that there is no breed or age predilection, that females are more prone on developing this disease and that it is a fatal one with no successful treatment options.

 

Clinical findings in Chucky :54416663_265039581075898_1025659308638994432_n 55575966_692832224465879_5135189188315971584_n

  • Multiple papules with red margins, non-pruritic on the body especially on the dorsal and lateral thorax
  • Ulcerated nodules on the head and ears also non-pruritic
  • Periauricular alopecia with hyperpigmentationPrognosis:

    FPH is a slowly progressive skin neoplasia that does not cause any pain but will spread behind the skin in the terminal stage. Median surviving time is 13.5 months.

    54462802_391015891629829_546392991934185472_n

    Treatment:

    It is considered only paliative. At the time of my diagnosis I started treatment with Prednisone at a 2mg/kg/24 h but there was no evidence of improvement. Lomustine (CCNU) is an antineoplastic drug that is used for the dog’s histiocytic disease and may be used in the cat as well at a dosage of 40-60 mg/m2 every 3-6 weeks.

    According to the book Small Animal Clinical Oncology (2012) the skin lesions do not appear to respond to corticosteroid therapy and effective medical treatment as not yet been described.

     

    What happened to Chucky: Chucky was brought for humanly euthanasia after 2 months after the diagnosis because of dyspnea and anorexia. I suspect pulmonary metastasis was present at that time but the owner refused necropsy.

     

     

     

     

Cat’s Tooth resorption case

pict 2Dr Yavor Stoyanov,

Veterinary clinic Bomed

Sofia, Bulgaria

A 6-year-old, neutered male domestic shorthair cat

was presented for dental cleaning due to “bed smell breath”.

No vaccinations history, irregular anthelmintic treatment.

No earlier dental care.

History of cystitis four years ago.

 

Clinical exam:

The cat was in good physical condition.

Normal temperature, auscultation, palpation.

 

Facial Exam:

Normal facial and eyes symmetry, no nose or eyes discharges.

No compression discomfort, no swollen regions, lymph nodes – normal, lips with black pigmented zones.

 

Conscious Oral exam:

The cat was cooperative.

Normal maxillomandibular joint mobility, without pain.

Normal buccal mucous membranes.  Lingual, sub lingual, caudal mouth space and  roof of the mouth was normal.

Moderate gingivitis, gingival recessions, missing all upper right premolars (106,107,108), left upper first premolar (206), first and third left mandibular premolars (307,308).

All canine teeth were with root exposure.

Many mobility teeth: 207,208,308,403, with root exposure and visual

root resorption and attachment loss.

Plaque index 2.

 

CBC, Biochemistry was in normal limits, except high globulins level.

 

Dental X-Ray was unavailable.

 

Oral exam and treatment under general anesthesia:

Missing all upper right premolars (106,107,108), left upper first premolar (206), first and third left mandibular premolars (307,308).

Moderate  gingivitis (gingival index 2).

Gingival and alveolar recessions.

No periodontal pockets. Stage 3 furcation (307, 308, 309, 208)

All canine teeth were with root exposure due to tooth extrusion.

Mobility teeth: 207(M3), 208(M2), 308(M3), 303(M3), 309(M3), 403(M3), with root exposure, visual root resorption and attachment loss.

1

Pic.1. Dental chart

Diagnosis:

 

Idiopathic Tooth Resorption

 

Treatment plan:

Multi teeth simple extraction

 

Treatment procedure:

Preoperative analgesia: Rheumocam

General anesthesia

Chlorhexidine Rinse 0.12% solution

Simple extraction with elevator and extraction forceps.

In this case because of severe attachment loss I just needed to section only one premolar.2

3

Postoperative treatment:

 

Rheumocam    24h/3 days

Stomorgil        24h/8 days

Stomodine      12h/14 days

 

Further treatment:

 

Dental and oral prophylaxis with Stomodine,

Regular examination every 3 months.

 

Discussion:

There are many theories about the etiology of Tooth resorption in domestic cats but main cause is still unknown.

Depends of the source, about 25–75% of domestic cats are affected.

There is an increasing prevalence of Tooth resorption as cats get older, with the first teeth becoming affected usually at four to six years of age.

Gender and neutering were not found to affect the prevalence of disease.

Cat owners may report halitosis, ptyalism, head shaking, dropping food

while eating, reluctance to eat hard food, excessive tongue movements,

repetitive lower jaw motions while eating, drinking or grooming,

sneezing, dysphagia, dehydration, anorexia, weight loss, and lethargy.

Clinical findings are various degrees of gingival inflammation, missing

or mobile teeth, gingival hyperplasia or recession, tooth extrusion, tooth

tissue destruction and others.

Earlier and most accurate diagnosis is made by dental X-Ray because

first changes are subgingival.

Depending on changes there are few classification based on severity

(stages 1–5) and radiographic appearance of the resorption (types 1–3).

Tooth resorption can develop with cementation and ankyloses or with

attachment loss and mobility of teeth. In case of attachment loss extraction

is easier.

 

Conclusion:

Tooth resorption is the most common progressive disease affecting the

dental tissues in domestic cats.

In every regular cat exam (with or without oral or dental abnormality)

Tooth resorption should be routinely suspected.

Choice of treatment – extraction of all affected teeth.

 

CONGENITAL FOLLICULAR PARAKERATOSIS IN A STRAY DOG

48260278_10156282671250432_7554491919091367936_nDVM Diana Anghelescu

Hemopet Clinic

Congenital follicular parakeratosis is a  hereditary disorder affecting females, which suggests a X-linked mode of inheritance, the particular aspect of the condition is not affecting the skin of the nose and footpads unlike other seborrheic disorders.

More about this particular condition can be found in Small Animal Dermatology 7th Edition.

 

 

 

THIS IS DEMInnn

This particular case seemed interesting as it occurs very rarely and even more so there are few cases when owners are willing to do everything they can to keep them in good shape.

Female stray dog presents to our clinic in gravely  bad shape, with serious skin scaling , waxy material clumping together most of her coat, runny eyes and greasy smell.

Comes from a litter of 3 puppies, her other brothers being already twice her weight, with normal skin condition

 

 

Name: Demi

Age: 2 months

Sex: Female, Mixed breed

 

Waxy material concentrated mostly on the edges of the pinnae and on her neck

pic 2pic 3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Waxy material covering most of her body, creating clumps of hair, general aspect of  a dirty dog

pic 4 pic 5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Due to the severity of her condition, several tests have been performed to exclude potential affections:

-Skin scraping

-Trichogram

-Citology examination

-CDV test

-Otoscopic examination

-Bloodwork

-Giardia Test

-Coproparasitological exam

 

*CDV test – negative

*Otoscopic examination: Billateral ceruminous otitis, with buildup waxy hair follicles inside the ear canal

*Skin scrapings: Negative for ectoparasites

*Cytology from different sites of  affected skin – keratinocyes, corneocytes accompanied with malassesia, no other signs of inflamation present

*Cytology from ears-  copious amounts of ceruminous debris, flourishing with malassesia

*Cytology of the conjunctiva- chains of cocci, macrophages and neutrofiles

*Trichogram revealed normal hair structure, mostly in telogen phase, but embedded in a dense brown waxy material.

*Giardia test- negative

*Moderate Toxocara infestation

pic 6

Skin cytology- Lots of corneocytes, rare cocci.

pic 7

Otic cytology- Almost 90% Mallassezia levures

After ruling out most of the possible diagnostics, Demi was reexamined closely looking for particularities.

 

-It turned out that the keratosis was affecting especially the external areas of the pinnae, the ventral side of the neck, the entire back and along the limbs and in a smaller part the abdomen.

 

-It was peculiar  that the skin on her nose was normal, as well as her footpads, which led me into thinking about this possible condition, that could only be 100% proved with a skin biopsy.

pic 16

Trichogram- Almost all hair follicles were covered in waxy material

pic 15

Trichogram- Almost all hair follicles were covered in waxy material

 

-Unfortunately the owner who rescued her did not agree with the biopsy so I had to move onto the therapy without knowing  100%, but shortly after I was sure that this was it.

TREATMENT

-Demi remained at the clinic for 2 months, giving us time to use proper treatment such as:

-Frequent bathing (2-3x/week) with Benzoyl peroxide followed by mixed shamoo (ketohexidine) and a conditioner

-High quality protein diet based on salmon

-Daily Omega 3 and 6 oral suppliments and weekly spot ons.

-Daily Vitamin complex with high ammount of vitamin A and E

-The otitis externa was treated with Clorexyderm oto and Surolan 2x/daily for 14 days

-The conjunctivits was resolved with cloramfenicol drops and daily cleansing of the ocular area – the hyperkeratosis also affected her eyelashes, constantly irritating the eyes, I had to remove each affected lash.

-She received deworming pills and sarolaner to control the endo and ectoparasites.

 

DEMI AFTER 7 DAYS OF TREATMENT

pic 9

DEMI AFTER 7 DAYS OF TREATMENT

pic 10

DEMI AFTER 7 DAYS OF TREATMENT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DEMI AFTER 14 DAYS OF TREATMENT

14 days 2

DEMI AFTER 14 DAYS OF TREATMENT

14 days

DEMI AFTER 14 DAYS OF TREATMENT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DEMI AFTER 1 MONTH OF TREATMENT

pic 11

DEMI AFTER 1 MONTH OF TREATMENT

pic 12

DEMI AFTER 1 MONTH OF TREATMENT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DEMI AFTER 2 MONTHS OF TREATMENT

pic 13

DEMI AFTER 2 MONTHS OF TREATMENT

pic 14

DEMI AFTER 2 MONTHS OF TREATMENT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CONCLUSIONS

As you can see, her condition can be kept under control especially if the owner understands that it’s a lifetime condition and she will require special treatment for the rest of her life

 

She had a brief period of time when I decided to see how long it takes until new keratin materials starts to form if I stop the treatment and it only took 6 days for the most affected areas to relapse.

 

It’s a rare condition, I was especially glad to be able to care for her and to see that there are people willing to do everything needed to keep her in good shape

 

I’m pretty sure most of these dogs don’t survive long if in the wild, or are discarded by breeders if not, let’s say Demi was lucky enough to be rescued at such a young age.

 

 

 

 

Main topic: “A new approach to radial nerve palsy in cats”. Clinical Case Series Report

380533_338242309525656_1915103081_nby the Orthopedic department of “Dobro hrumvane!”veterinary clinics,

Sofia city, Bulgaria

  1. Introduction

The radial nerve palsy is a pathology that is rarely seen in dogs, in comparison to cats, where it is more commonly seen, especially in young stray cats. The most commonly observed clinical picture in such patients includes paralysis of the antebrachial portion of the limb, the carpus, the manus and fingers. According to our personal observations, in about 25% of these patients the elbow’s neuro-muscular apparatus is also involved, in a different degree.

The patients demonstrate an external rotation of the antebrachial area in relation to the portion of the limb above the elbow.

The carpus and manus possess an additional and permanent external rotation in relation to the antebrachium, which causes the patients to use the rostral portion of the their carpus for stepping and weight bearing, which in turn inducts the formation of a chronical traumatic inflammatory proliferative granuloma in this area. For about a 25-45 days period, an impossible to overcome carpal hyperfelexion develops, to the point where the joint can no longer be returned to its physiological position, due to the shortening of the flexor muscle-tendon apparatus (see video 1 with cat Sonia 39 days after the trauma at https://youtu.be/SZoXfp8tMJ0 ).

A few therapeutic approaches are being advised for this pathologic condition worldwide: total limb amputation; stem cell therapy (with still controversial results); standard pancarpal arthrodesis (note that very often it is very difficult to execute procedure in the state of this disease and is almost always accompanied by a nonsatisfactory limb function end result).

None of the upper mentioned approaches for treatment of radial nerve palsy in cats, while trying to avoid limb amputation, was producing satisfying results in the patients with this problem, operated by our team. This is the reason we decided to test and implement a new “Dobro hrumvane modified pancarpal arthrodesis” procedure for the operative treatment of feline radial nerve palsy.

  1. Report patients base

 

Up to this moment, this modified by our team procedure has been done in 111 patients. In the first 11 patients we tried different but very similar to each other versions of the modification, and after patient 12 up to patient 111 (meaning exactly 100 patients) we were performing always one same version of the technique.

In 87 of these patients a follow-up postoperative monitoring for over one year has been performed (in 9 of them an approximately 5 year follow up was achieved, in 33 patients the follow up period was approximately 4 years etc.), in 11 patients the follow up period was between 4 months and one year and in 2 patients the follow up period was less than 4 months. In four of the operated patients, pre- or postoperative clinically relevant paralysis of the elbow region was also observed. As was mentioned earlier, 25% of feline radial nerve palsy patients demonstrate this (according to our observations in 23% of the patients it is already observed in the preoperative period and in other 2%, it develops a few weeks after the surgical intervention, with the reasons for that still being unclear). It should be noted that the majority of owners of patients with elbow area involvement preferred amputation over the experimental procedure.

 

 

  1. Surgical technique

 

The standard pancarpal arthrodesis general guidelines are being followed, but with the following modifications:

  • Straight 11̊ inclination non locking hybrid pancarpal arthrodesis plate has been used  (produced by Medimetal or Mikromed, delivered by VetWest). The plate contouring should be modified before the surgery and the inclination should become 21-22̊. Twisting of the distal portion of the plate internally in relation to the proximal portion of the plate is not recommended! For the fixation to the metacarpus 1.5 mm non locking screws were used (produced by Mikromed, delivered by VetWest) and for the fixation to the radius 2.0 mm non locking screws were used (produced by Mikromed, delivered by VetWest);
  • The proximal (os carpi radiale et ulnare) and distal carpal bones are being completely removed, this being done with extreme caution not the traumatize the adjacent magistral structures (especially blood vessels), which are located on the palmar surface;
  • The proximal ends of the metacarpal bones are being separated from one another;
  • The fixation of the plate to the dorsal surface of the third metacarpal bone is achieved the same way as in the standard technique, using 1.5 mm thick and 6 mm long screws, but the fixation to the radius is not applied on its dorsal, but on its medial/mediocaudal edge/surface, using 2.0 mm screws. The screw hole on the plate which is intended for os carpi radiale (note that this bone is actually removed  in the modified technique) is used for an additional 2.0 mm screw, placed in the distal radius. In other words, the whole metacarpal portion of the limb is being internally rotated around 85-95° (for the purpose of that an almost full blunt and careful separation of all soft tissues, including the magistral vessels and nerves in the distance between the carpus and the middle portion of the metacarpal bones, should be performed). After plating of the third metacarpal plate with four 1.5 mm non locking screws in neutral position the third metacarpal bone is being compressed to the radial distal This compression is easily achieved with the first screw, placed in the radius (not dorsal but medial/mediocaudal radial edge/surface – see below Xray picture Standard) thanks to the DC wholes of the plate types mentioned upper above. This screw is being inserted in the second 2.0 mm screw whole in distal to proximal direction, meaning the third plate hole in relation to the whole plate in proximal to distal direction. After that, 4 neutrally (not in  compression mode) placed screws are applied to radial bone in the following order: the most distal hole, the most proximal hole, the second hole in proximal to distal direction, the third hole in proximal to distal direction. It is recommended that at least two of the screws in the distal radius engage the distal ulna too, so the distal portions of the two bones could eventually be pulled together – the screws could be numbers one and two or four and five from proximal to distal, this possibility could be estimated only intraoperativelly;
    pic1

    POST-OP STANDARD X-RAY PICTURE AFTER PANCARPAL ARTHRODESIS “DOBRO HRUMVANE”

    • With this technique it is easy and recommendable to use a significant amount of autograft material – recommendable due to the large gap that is being created. This autograft is readily available, considering the amount of bone that is being removed in the previous stages of the surgical technique;
    • The final stage of the surgery includes almost full blunt separation of the skin from the underlying soft tissues in the designated area, along with skin plastic traction modification, which is intended to place the fifth finger in a more medio-cranial position. The skin sutures and respectively the skin incision should be placed in a position that is not exactly above the plate (eventually they plate and incision could be placed in a cross manner, but should not be on top of each other for their whole lenght). It is not necessary to perform tenodesis of the digital extensors or excision of some skin on the dorsal carpal area in orther to pull the fingers in extension. It shoud be noted that the upper mentioned skin traction used to “pull” the fifth finger in a more dorsal and medial direction (meaning that the fifth finger is placed adjasent to the dorsolateral, not solely lateral, surface of the fourth finger, under subtle tension that will not allow overlapping of the fifth finger) is extremely important because in some of the first patients, which underwent the still not perfected procedure, weeks to months after the surgery pressure necrosis developped in the fifth finger, which required further revison plastic surgeries.
    • In patients that have a very wild temper and where it is not possible to achieve two week long cage rest, postoperative splint could be placed. If this is done, additional amount of cotton could be used to help achieve the upper mentioned mediocranial position of the fifth metacarpus and finger;
    • NEO K-9 clinical formula is prescribed for a month and a two week long cage rest is done in more calm patients.

     

     

    1. C) Results – the last 100 cats (No 12 … No 111 made with identical technique) :

     

    C1) 96 patients that did not have (according to our clinical opinion) involvement of the elbow region pre- or postoperatively:

    – 95 patients with good limb geometry in stance and during walking, active involvement of the limb during walks and playing, owners completely content with the results 4 months up to 5 years after the surgery. 89 of these 95 patients had no postoperative complicatioons; 2 patients developed moderate postoperative infection that was easily treated; 2 patients demonstrated delayed healing of the surgical incision in the area above the plate (it took more than 5 weeks in both patients); 2 patients had delayed bone union, that took around 5 months to be completed;

    – 1 patient demonstrated unsatisfactory to this point level of weigt bearing and limb usage during walk and play. It is understandable that the owner of this patient is not completely content with the results, but is unfortunately refusing implant removal and further diagnostic procedures;

    – No cases with implant loosening, intra- or postoperative fracture, postoperative necrosis etc.;

     

    C2) 4 patients with clinically relevant pre- or postoperative involvement and paralysis of the motor unit of the elbow joint:

     

    1 patient without preoperative elbow problem, developed such around a month after the surgical intervetion and the problem was accompanied by the development of an additional low grade external rotation of the antebrachium in relation to the limb portion above the elbow. The main problem was presented by progressive loss of support of the ebow joint in extension during stance, which lead to the inability of the limb to support the body during weight bearing. The problem was resolved after a two week long active rehabilitation and machine physiotherapy and application of a light splint, which is suporrting (but not blocking) the elbow.

     

    – 1 patient (cat named Trun) with preoperative paralysis of the elbow joint, but accompanied by almost complete ankylosis of the elbow joint (only 15% of the normal range of motion was preserved, especially the extension was blocked) – see below the post-op pictures of cat Trun

    pic 2

    cat Trun

    pic 3

    cat Trun

    Although there was a serious accompanying problem, months after the surgery the owners are completely satisfied with the result. The patient is using the limb with no limitations during play, almost no limitations while running and with some limitations while walking – that last limitation is probably due to the constant flexed position of the elbow, which is exceeding the normal flexion angle of an elbow joint during walk, thus the animal is placing the shoulder of the affected limb under the level of the shoulder of the unaffected limb, during weight bearing (see video with cat Trun approx 3 months post-op at https://youtu.be/N9scMppZeyo ). The owners do not report signs of pain. Even though it is not right to make conclusions only on the basis of a single patient, this case gives us hope that patients with radial nerve palsy in combination with complete or partial elbow joint ankylosis have the chance to avoid amputation of the limb.

     

    – 1 patient with partial preoperative paralysis of the elbow joint which became more severe (around  50%) month after the surgery: the bones in the arthrodesis region achieved complete healing, but the elbow joint loses support during weight bearing,  thus the animal is placing the shoulder of the affected limb under the level of the shoulder of the unaffected limb, during weight bearing. Due to this the ptient is weight bearing the limb not on its pads, but rather on the carpal palmar angle surface. Because of that a chronic nonhealing skin lesion developed in this area over the time, which is intermitently bleeding. Up to this point, the owners are content with the result and do not wish to start rehabilitation or agree to a revision surgery, but for our team this result is unsatisfactory and it requires additional surgical and/or physiotrepautical intervention;

     

    – 1 patient (Doxy) wtihout preoperative involvement and paralysis of the elbow, which developed a progressive clinically relevant paralysis of the elbow a few weeks after surgery. This led not only to loss of support of the elbow joint during weight bearing, but also to constant progressing additional rotation of the antebrachium in relation to the humeral area.

    pic 4

    X-RAY PICTURES DOXY

    pic 6

    X-RAY PICTURES DOXY

    This rotation made the patient bear weight on the lateral surface of the carpal angle, developing a skin lesion there. This postoperative elbow joint paralysis did not resolve after a rehabilitation course. In order to correct the problem an elbow arthrodesis was performed, but not in a standard way. A “double-modified” elbow arthrodesis was performed: the boomerang plate produced by Mikromed and supplied by VetWest was placed on the lateral surface instead of the medial. Also, the antebrachial region was rotated 18 degrees internally, in relation to the humerus. We recommend very torough preoperative preparation: the execution of the technique is quite challenging, because the compression must be maintained and in the same time the “locking” of the anconeal process in the humeral fossa must be overcome, along with the congruency of the other ulnar structures and their corresponding radial structures – see below post-op X-ray pictures of cat Doxy after the second surgery, the elbow modified arthrodesis:

    It can be seen that the plating is on the lateral surface of the radius distally and on the laterocranial surface of the humerus proximally.

    Only a few hours after the surgery, the patient demonstrated excellent, pain free limb usage, with very good limb geometry and lack of difference in the level of the two shoulder joints during weight bearing. In the following days the patient started using the limb for playing too. At this point, 3-4 months after surgery, the patient is demonstrating completely satifying results (see video with cat Doxy approx 4 months post-op at https://youtu.be/X_rFEgrZink ). There are no signs of malunion, infection or other types of complications. The muscle mass in the shoulder area of the operated limb is similar to that of the non operated limb. Even if it is based just on one patient, the result of this case gives us some hope for surgical resolution for patients with modified or standard carpal arthrodesis, which have an acompanying or later develop severe elbow pathology of nonakylotic kind, as we know that the combination of carpal and elbow arthrodesis is not recommended in the known sources. For this patient especially we have an additional recommendation:

    1) The first recommendation that is applied to all 111 operated patients – considering that it is a patient with a paralysed limb it should live on a non- smooth surface (but also not on an abrasive one). On a slippery surface patients with Dobro hrumvane arthrodesis step with mild slipping which combined with the lack of sensitivity could cause in longer period skin lesion (see Video 2 with cat Zhivka approx 5 weeks post-op at https://youtu.be/hKKjmO9yWdI ).

    2) Additional recommendation especially for Doxy: the patient has two joints that underwent arthodesis, which means that a stress point is being created between the two plates, which in turn creates a significant risk for further fractures. This risk is further amplified by the fact that the arthrodesis procedures are reducing the shock absorbing function of the joints. Considering all of the mentioned above, the patient should live in an enviornment that lacks the risk of creation of serious vertical vector forces (such as jumping to or from high places). It should be noted that Doxy did exactly that, many times after surgery and no problem occured, but it is still highly not recommended.

     

    1. Conclusion

     

    The 100 clinical cases, with patients that underwent a similar modified pancarpal Dobro hrumvane arthrodesis procedure for the treatment of feline radial nerve palsy demonstrate a constant and satisfying result with very good return to function of the limb, pain free, with no discomfort. No following complications, including long-term ones are being observed and there is a very high level of owner satisfaction. We recommend this surgical technique and we would be glad to recieve feedback afer the completion of the procedure, either in the algorithm recommended by us, or with any additional modifications.

    pic 7

    Hari

    Even when the rotation of the metacarpal area in comparison to the antebrachial area is not 85-95 degrees the patients use the leg and the owners are satisfied but the leg geometry is in our opinion not good looking. Cat number 11, the last before the standartized 100 patients chain, named Hari is such a case, the rotation was 78-80 %, the operation was made approximately 5 years ago. As you can see at the videos made 4 years post-op the patient uses the left operated leg even during acrobatic jumping (see below picture Hari)

    and active playing (see video Hari 4 years after surgery at https://youtu.be/SfhzUtLr9ig ).

    1. E) Post scriptum

    A few years ago we presented the technique and its results, based on a few dozens of cases, on a VOG\BAVOT event. Ever since, a few colleagues from the Balkan region have sent us feedback with very encouraging results, after using the technique. One of them was our inconsolable friend, colleague and inspirator, D-r V. Vasilev, whose memmory and collosal contribution to the development of the veterinary meidicine in Bulgaria we would like to honor in the end of this report.

     

     

              Sofia                                      The Orthopedic department of

       March 2019                            “Dobro hrumvane!” veterinary clinics