Cervical Herniated Disc in dog

timisoaraDR FODOR LUCIAN HAPPY PET, TIMISOARA ROMANIA

Introduction

 

Disc herniation is a neurological disorder that is characterized by slipping nucleus pulposus outside of the space between the bodies of two vertebrae, the clinical appearance of intense pain in the area. Practical part or whole kernel pulposus (soft area of ​​the intervertebral disc) herniates through a weakened area of ​​the intervertebral disc annulus. Disc herniation can occur at any level of the spine, but the two most common sites are the lumbar and cervical. To establish a diagnosis of certainty indicated imaging studies: x-rays, CT, MRI, myelography. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is much more appropriate than CT in diagnosing pathologies of the spine. The obtained images are three-dimensional and thus very well both visualization column and nerve roots, and can determine the disease itself. Currently, MRI is the imaging method for diagnosing first intention herniated disk and can even be used in patients who have no clinical symptoms.

 

Case report

 

A 4 years old male, boxer weighting 24kg was present to us, after 14 days of tetraplegia; the debut being 6 months ago when it started difficult and heavy lifting from the bottom, neck pain when the steroid anti-inflammatory drug was administrated, the symptoms were resolved;  14 days ago tetraplegia was installed.

 

Clinical Examination

The animal presents a normal body temperature, its respiratory and cardiac frequency is within normal values, biochemical parameters and blood results is not modified. Neurological tests point out the tetraplegia, with persistence of profound sensibility and the absence of superficial sensibility. After neurological examination were also present: abolished patellar reflexes, flexor reflex abolished, tibial reflex abolished, absence correctional reaction, panicular reflex abolished , anal reflex present globe bladder.

 

Additional Examinations

fig 1

fig 1

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An MRI was done at the Telescan, Timisoara, which pointed out a extrusion of the intervertebral C2-C3 (fig. 1/2).

 

 

Diagnosis:

Cervical Herniated Disc C2-C3

 

 

Treatment:

 

  • Surgical Procedure

 

Surgical technique: ventral corpectomy, herniated disc extraction.

The dogs were anesthetized with a mixture of ketamine and xylazine (10 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg i. m.), Propofol (2 mg/kg) and artificially ventilated by a respirator with oxygen and monitored.

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fig 3

After trimming antisepsis field operator and 10% betadine solution, and took the subconjunctival tissue and skin incision, incision between the vertebrae C1-C4 (fig. 3)

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fig 6

After removing sternocephalic muscle, inferior thyroid artery is highlighted, (Fig 4/5) muscle sternohyoid that close side of trachea, esophagus, carotid, highlighting recurrent laryngeal nerve and muscle along the neck (Fig. 6)

The latter is detached the ventral tubercle of the affected disc space, resulting in highlighting the ventral face of the ring disk.

Discuss ring incision rise to the spinal canal, then extract the affected disc (Fig.7)

fig 7

fig 7

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fig 8

Hemostasis was secured with ultra incision Harmonic Scalpel(Fig.8)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • After surgery

 

Postoperative treatment containing corticotherapy 5 days, antibiotherapy 5 days and a bladder catheter the first 24 hours.

Surgery is commonly recommended on dogs that do not respond to medical treatment, have progressive clinical signs, or have more severe neurological deficits.

The efficacy of medical therapy may only be seen in patients that have minimal neurological deficits.

 

 

 

 

 

Discussion:

 

  • After surgery evolution of the clinical case has been very good.
  • 72 hours postoperative, the patient is able to move without any help. (Video)
  • After two months postoperative the animal is completely healed, and does not manifest any neurological symptoms.
  • The success rate with surgery is generally high provided that the spinal cord hasn’t been compressed for a long time (chronic spinal cord injury). Chronic cord injuries can be treated successfully with surgery, but the outlook is less favorable than it is for short-term (acute) injuries.