WHO ARE Vets on The Balkans? Veterinarians speak…..

10334323_1650417485231859_7490271749546982451_nLUIGI VENCO, DVM , SCPA, Dipl EVPC, Pavia, Italy


It ‘s a wonderful Journal.  Open source. Clinical cases and tips useful for the reader. Not just a display of vanity for the authors. Congratulations to the editors for strong expended effort




Dr Constantin Ifteme – Center of Veterinary Endoscopy and Minimum Invasive Surgery


Vets on the Balkans it is more than a promoting platform of all successful projects from the veterinary medicine in the Balkans region.  It can be compared with the Olympics of the veterinarians from this geographical area, with major involvement in training and continuous learning of the veterinary community.



Dr Iuliana Ionascu, DVM , PhD, member ESVO


Vets on the Balkans is the meeting point of the specialists, the friends and of the people who have the joy of sharing their experience in areas of interest in veterinary medicine.Vets on the Balkans helped us by placing us in direct contact with specialists and taught us how to work together. The first step is done. The next step is one that I want from the bottom of my heart:  to write therapeutic guides together.So, Vets on the Balkans, my dream has to be your accomplishment in the years to come.I love you for what you created. Good luck on your wonderful journey!


 Dr Alexandru Diaconescu, DVM, PhD, Senior Lecturer


I think it’s a great idea! All the vets in the Balkans area can learn from each other’s experience, we can share opinions, interesting clinical cases, etc.

I wish you good luck!


Dr Rares Capitan , DVM, resident ECVD

I think is a good interesting idea. I really hope that this project will  continue for a long time and collect many vets as want to share their experience. So the whole community from the Balkans will progress in a good way.


Dr Ana Maria Boncea, DVM, resident ECVD

“Vets on the Balkans” is like a fresh air for all the vet’s from every place…Is an open door for sharing your experience, upgrading your knowledge and enjoy the vet’s life spectaculy. Let’s share together all beautiful insides of our job!


Dr Vladislav Zlatinov – Central Vet Clinic in Sofia, Bulgaria

 It is so great to have such a professional forum, connecting Balkans (and not only) vets! I literally see people from different countries in the region, getting to know each other because of your journal.  The “Vets on The Balkans” deserve all the compliments for your great positive initiative and work!


Dr Stefan Savov- Ditton  Reach Veterinary Surgery, England

 The journal is a really brilliant idea. I read all the articles. I find some really good examples there. It has proved that veterinarians on Balkans are no worse than the colleagues in the western countries. I wish you more and more interesting cases shared on the pages of the journal and lots of luck.



Dr Mila Bobadova ( Veterinary Clinic “ Dobro Hrumvane”  in Sofia, Bulgaria)

 We needed that kind of journal at Balkans, a connection spot and an open source. It brings veterinary medicine to a new level, but most of all it helps all the vets from Balkans to get to know each other. For that I am very thankful and I am sure it will make a difference.


Dr Svetlina Aleksandrova ( Veterinary Clinic “Light Vet” in Sandanski, Bulgaria)

 Vets on the Balkans is great new way for communication and learning. The reality is that we can not know everything for any condition. The learning process continue until the end of our lives. I love the case reports – a lot of photos and good explications. The Learn and Travel initiative will make a lot of collegues better in their prefered section of veterinary medecine. Please, dr Gancheva, continue to do what you do in the best way – connect!


Dr Liliya Mihailova ( Veterinary Clinic “ United Veterinary Clinic “ in Varna, Bulgaria )

 According to me ” Vets on the Balkans “o is one of the greatest way for many veterinarians to communicate and share knowledge and experience. Because is a new and modern way to connect veterinarians not only from countries of Balkan peninsula but also from countries all over the world. Moreover It provides the latest scientific information about news in veterinary medicine and useful personal professional experience.


Dr Spas Spasov  ( Veterinary Clinic “ United Veterinary Clinic “ in Varna, Bulgaria )

 I want to extend my greetings to the great work you do with the magazine. It is very interesting and useful. I wish to become more known. I wish to be ever visited. I think the idea to united vets on the Balkans is realized.



Dr Vanya Stoyanova – Veterinary Clinic Provet in Plovdiv, Bulgaria

 Useful  veterinary journal,creative realized idea.
Like to read the letters ,interesting posts ,new information for me and classified my level where I am on the market with the Balkan colleagues .Receive information for future symposiums,Conferences and Webinars. Thank You  Luba Gancheva & Co
Wish you continue enjoying with your fantastic work!!!


 Dr Dimitar Djambazov Veterinary Clinic Sofia in Sofia, Bulgaria

 Vets on the Balkans is a unique in its respective category as a journal who strives to connect the countries on the Balkans- a highly diverse and interesting set of countries.

The journal provides easy-to-reach and concise practical knowledge as well as the opportunity for interviews, presentations and step-by-step guidelines for management of specific problems.

From where I stand as a practitioner the case reports are by far my favorite method of acquiring new information in the veterinary field. That is of course after one has a strong basic knowledge on a given subject.

And here’s where the next indispensible role of “Vets on the Balkans” becomes evident. The journal not only acts as a mean of learning and developing oneself as a veterinary professional with blog posts but also serves as a connecting point between the countries and veterinarians in the region, as to promote and organize practical sessions, continuing education projects and various externships. This is indispensible help, strongly appreciated by many and luckily gaining more and more popularity among animal caregivers on the Balkans.
The effort invested in the journal by its creator and her collaborators is immense and undoubtedly greatly acknowledged as we all know how hard it can be to sustain such a project, be a practicing veterinarian at the same time and have a life from time to time as well.

As a young and still lacking a certain amount of experience, vet, I appreciate the Vets on the Balkans journal as a source of CPD, but also as a opportunity to reach and connect to our neighbors on the Balkans.



 Dr Emil Ofner – Veterinary Clinic More in Sibenik, Croatia

 Task for every journal is to have a good impact factor on its readers. Vets on the Balkans journal doesn’t do just that, but it also successfully ties up vets from different Balkan countries and others. It is the first of its kind in the Balkans and for sure it will facilitate further development of the veterinary profession. Hopefully it will become a great online tool for improvements of veterinary skills and knowledge.

 Dr Mario Kreszinger – Veterinary Clinic Kreszinger in Zagreb, Croatia

 It very useful easy approachable source of informations we need in everyday Jobs routine.


Dr Nikola Bunevski– Veterinary Clinic Kreszinger in Zagreb, Croatia

 Sharing is caring. Every information is priceless. We are working near each other we have similar problems and questions, it will be better for each of us if we share those questions and problems to one another, we will come to answers faster and painless. Vets on the Balkans can serve that purpose.Thank you for having me.




 Dr Zoran Loncar- Veterinary Clinic Novak in Belgrade, Serbia

 Vets on the Balkan is refreshment and result of people with good energy and wish to improve our region. We live in small countries and if we cooperate together we have better chance to improve ourselves.


Dr Nikoleta Novak- Veterinary Clinic Novak in Belgrade, Serbia

I read the interview you had with our colleague Nikola Bunevski, and I think he said it perfectly; “Sharing is caring. Vets on the Balkans can serve that purpose””Vets on Balkans” is really a great idea and I do wish you all the best on this exciting and high-minded mission.



 Dr Marko Novak- Klinika Loka in the city Škofja Loka in Slovenia

 I came across VTB when I was scrolling down the facebook and I saw these interesting articles from guys doing great job. I think it is one of those starters that help people to become better at what they do.



 Banu Dokuzeylul, DVM, PhD ,Department of Internal Medicine

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine

Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey

 I like reading. One day I found myself reading a case from Vets on The Balkans Online Journal. This subject was one of my interesting areas in veterinary medicine. With this article, I couldn’t imagine a good collaboration and friendship start. With Dr. Luba Gancheva’s support, I was invited to seminar in Bucharest. As I see until today, the journal improves day by day. Instead of giving important information, this journal combines the colleagues on the Balkans. If you want to be a part of a great friendship and have a vulnerable data, you must start to read the journal as fast as you can.10334323_1650417485231859_7490271749546982451_n



Dr Nikoleta Novak- veterinarian, mother, writer…. successful lady on the Balkans

My dog Rasha and me

Dr Nikoleta Novak

1.Who is Nikoleta Novak?

Nikoleta is…
Nature lover. Social bee. Passionate reader. Wise Owl for close friends. Open-minded.. “Half-full glass” type of a person…
Apart from that Nikoleta is veterinary surgeon working in Veterinary Clinic Novak dealing with cardiology cases, but also seeing first-opinion cases and doing some soft tissue surgery.
She is also a mother of two girls, a writer of children’s books and the owner of a dog, cat and 55 years old tortoise.

2.Do you think is hard to be professional in veterinary medicine on the Balkans nowadays?

ESAVS cardio course Luxenburg

ESAVS cardiology course in Luxenburg

When one of my friends, who is also a vet, first time visited England, he said : “This is a Disneyland for a vet!” For veterinary practice on Balkans nobody will say such a thing. Here you need to struggle with lots of problems, drawbacks, lack of medicines ,equipment, different mentality of clients… On the other hand, being a vet on Balkans is more challenging. You need to think differently, to look for solutions outside the textbooks, be ready to be a service provider both for your clients and for your equipment, even if you are not a creative person you are forced to become imaginative and resourceful …

3.Why you didnt leave your country? (vet like you has many opportunity to do this)

EHO workshop with June Boon in Italy

Ultrasound workshop with June Boon in Italy

big patients1


One part of you really wants to be in Disneyland. Me and my former husband set and passed RCVS exam (exam set by British Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons) and became their members which means we could work in the U.K or other E.U. countries. (Serbia is not part of the EU). The whole of our staying in the U.K. and the exam itself was a great experience for us and we enjoyed every moment of it, even very hard studying . But then it was a life decision: starting a new life in the U.K. or going back home and continue the life we left. We decided to go back and never regretted this decision. Why? There is a list of reasons, but for me probably the strongest one was a family. On the other hand it is not the same if you are just visiting Disneyland and if you live in it.

4.What do you think about the level of veterinary medicine on the Balkans?

It is getting better and better, but still we all have to put much more effort and more work. We need to educate both ourselves and our clients.

5.You are a writer of children’s books. I read some of them.They are amazing. Tell us more about this part of your life?

2015 book fair anouncment for my novel promotion

2015 book fair anouncment for her novel promotion


one of her books

Belgrade book fair - my dog as a character in one of my picuter books

Belgrade book fair – her dog as a character in one of her picuter books

My new novel and the main character

Her new novel and the main character

Visting Children's book fair

Visting Children’s book fair

Since I was a child I loved to read and write. I even wrote my first picture book before starting school. It was about animals of course (smiling). Throughout my life I was a keen reader but the only things I wrote were professional articles. Then by lots of connected coincidences I was contacted by a children’s book publishing house “Pčelica” (www.pcelica.rs). They asked me to write a manual for children about pets. And that’s how it all started. Now I have three serials of eight picture books each, one manual and most recently, a novel published by “Pčelica”. So all together, I have 25 books published. I managed to connect my three loves together: love for children, for animals and for books – as I write books for children and most of the characters are animals. In my books I try to show children how amazing animals are, and to evoke love for animals in them, but I also do address some important human values, dilemmas and problems, on children’s level of understanding of course.

6. Tell us more about your project “Blue dog” ?

blue dog part of the team

Blue Dog -part of the team

Blue Dog workshop

Blue Dog workshop

Blue dog is an European project designed to promote the education of children in their relationships with dogs  . The first resouce was the interactive CD-ROM with its printed parent guide. This was well received in scientific circles. However, promoting a prevention message to the public proved to be challenging in Serbia but also in all other countries which are participating in the program.
As a member of the Blue Dog team in Serbia. I really do enjoy working with children but all the other issues connected with it (writing projects, raising money for it etc.) I personally find hard to deal with. That’s why the Blue Dog team needs to have people with different knowledge and skills involved in it’s work.
In Serbia we had lots of workshops and other kind of activates in preschools, schools and different public happenings designed to teach the children safe behavior towards dogs and to promote and spread the Blue Dog project idea.

7. What do you think about “Vets on The Balkans” ?

my girls and our dog

her girls and her dog!

I read the interview you had with our colleague Nikola Bunevski, and I think he said it perfectly; “Sharing is caring. Vets on the Balkans can serve that purpose””Vets on Balkans” is really a great idea and I do wish you all the best on this exciting and high-minded mission.


The team of Vets on The Balkans would like to express their gratitude to this brilliant veterinarian from The Balkans and we are proud to have her as a colleague and friend!


Dr Nikoleta Novak


Nikoleta Novak BVSc MRCVS, surgery specialist, graduated in 1995 from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade. She attained her surgery specialist degree in 1997. From 2000-2002 she expanded her professional knowledge in Great Britain, mostly in Cambridge veterinary school.
Nikoleta has been a Member of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (MRCVS) since 2002. More recently, she obtained three parts of ESAVS certificate in Small Animal Cardiology, and continuing to expand her knowledge in the veterinary cardiology area by attended June Boon’s Echocardiography courses in Belgrade and Italy, over the past few years. She has attended more than 50 various continuing education programs, congresses, symposia, workshops, round tables, professional meetings beside those where she was involved as an organiser.

Nikoleta was a member of the Scientific and Professional Committee of Serbian Association of Small Animal Practicioneres (SASAP). as well as a member of the Editorial Board of the SASAP Bulletin for eight years.

She works Small Animal Veterinary Clinic – Veterinary Clinic “Novak” ; which is an institution that provides general and specialized veterinary medicine and surgical services for small animals.

Nikoleta is the leader of the Blue Dog Project in Serbia. (European project on safe behavior between children and dogs).

In 2010 Nikoleta wrote a short manual for children “Let’s learn about pets” for the publishing house “Pčelica” . Continuing this successful partnership, she published 3 serials of 8 picture books each, and most recently a novel for older children.

Laparoscopic surgery in IVAVET clinic

Picture 1.Expert team at IVAVET clinic, Belgrade, Serbia.

Picture 1.Expert team at IVAVET clinic, Belgrade, Serbia. In front from right to left are Ivan Jevtić, DVM, and doctor specialist for laparoscopic surgery, owner and the main surgeon at IVAVET clinic. Next to him is Marija Pavlović, DVM, intern at IVAVET clinic. Behind from left to right are Biljana Jevtić, VT and owner at IVAVET clinic. Next to her is Radenko Savić, DVM, doctor specialist for intern medicine in small animals at IVAVET clinic.

Laparoscopic surgery is a minimally invasive surgery, a technique that allows the intervention to be performed by using multiple small abdominal incisions. Specialized camera with fiber-optical fibers (laparoscope) is introduced through one of these portals in order to allow visualization of the internal contents of the abdomen. Similarly, through other portals surgical instruments necessary for the intervention are inserted into the abdominal cavity. Table 1.

Laparoscopic surgery at ‘IVA VET’ clinic is performed by the team of experts. ‘IVA VET’ surgical team (picture 1.) utilizes advanced technology for the prophylactic, diagnostic, and therapeutic surgical procedures.

Picture 2. A Tissue appearance after laparoscopically performed surgery.

Picture 2. is presented tissue appearance after laparoscopically performed surgery.

Picture 2. B Tissue appearance after traditional open surgery.

Picture 2 is presented tissue appearance after traditional open surgery

The most common type of surgery performed using minimally invasive technique is ovariectomy. This procedure is performed to prevent unwanted offspring, and to reduce the risk of infections and cancers of the female reproductive tract. Compared with traditional open ovariohysterectomy, laparoscopic ovariectomy is technically less complicated and time-consuming. Further, in a study published in the 2005 Journal of the Veterinary Medical Association has been documented that laparoscopic surgery diminishes pain, reduces the risk of hemorrhage and speeds recovery times up to 65%. In table 1. are presented laparoscopic surgery advantages over traditional open surgery.


The most common reasons for laparoscopic intervention are:

• Diseases causing acute or chronical pain in abdominal or pelvic cavity.
• Visualization of miscellaneous growths and patches in abdominal cavity, and collection of various samples (biopsy) for pathohistological examination.
• Ovariectomy and ovariohysterectomy
• Determining possible causes for free fluid accumulation in abdomen.
• Cancer staging for specific tumors.
• Surgical removal of tumors or organ invaded by tumor.

Laparoscopic procedures in abdomen cavity:
• Ovariohysterectomy (in this procedure both, ovaries and uterus are removed)
• Ovariectomy (spay), only the ovaries are removed
• Sterilization of male dog
• Cancer and cystic kidney surgery
• Hernia Repair
• Ultrasound guided percutaneous sampling (biopsy) of abdominal organs
• Surgery of polycystic ovaries
• Gastropexy (Bloat/GDV Prevention)
• Removal of various tumor masses

Pre-operative assessment
Animal owners should expect the following procedures to be preformed during the preparation for the laparoscopic intervention:
1. General physical examination to determine animal health status.
2. Laboratory blood analysis (1.Blood chemistry panel—Used to evaluate organ function, electrolyte status, hormone levels, and more; 2.Complete blood count—Gives us information on hydration status, anemia, infection, clotting ability, and the ability of the immune system to respond to disease)
3. Laboratory urine analysis (Checks the condition of the urinary and genital tracts and screens for conditions such as diabetes, liver disease, and Cushing’s disease)
4. Abdominal ultrasound (enabling a partial examination of the abdominal cavity- A non-invasive, real-time, moving picture of your pet’s abdomen, chest and heart)
Contraindication for Laparoscopic surgery
Absolute contraindications

 Diaphragmatic hernia
 Septic peritonitis
 Conditions in which conventional surgical intervention is obviously indicated

Relative contraindications

 Obesity (obscure the view of many organs)
 Poor patient condition
 Ascites

 Poor clotting time
 Patient body weight <2 kg (instrument size)
 Patient that is a poor anesthetic risk or an extreme surgical risk

Patient preparation before surgery
Owners should withhold food for 6-12 hours (over night) before surgery.
Anesthesia for laparoscopic surgery
Laparoscopic surgery is routinely performed in general anesthesia.
Laparoscopic Surgery Procedures in general
Preoperative preparation of patient
Empty urinary bladder for a better visualization of the abdominal cavity and to minimize the danger of tapping. Position the patient. Aseptically prepare the surgical field in the standard fashion.


Picture 3. First incision in naval area

Picture 3. First incision in naval area

A surgeon makes one initial incision (picture 3.) commonly in the navel area. Then, a small needle is inserted through this incision, through which carbon dioxide gas can be pumped into the abdomen to inflate it allowing for better visualization of the abdomen’s contents. Pressure in abdomen (picture 4.) must not be higher than 15 mm Hg (maintain the abdominal insufflation pressure at 12 to 15 mm Hg). If pressure in abdomen is higher, patient respiration will be impeded.


Next, a laparoscope is inserted through one of the incisions. The camera illuminates the interior of the abdomen and transmits high-quality, magnified images to a video screen in the operating room, allowing for precise maneuvering. After that, surgeon can begin with organ examination. If required, more incisions are made on abdomen to insert instruments (basic equipment and instruments required to perform laparoscopic surgery in dogs and cats are listed in table 2.), and perform the surgery or/and sample collections (biopsy). Once the procedure is completed, the carbon dioxide is let out of the abdomen and the incisions are closed using stitches or clips.Table 2.


Picture 4. Laparoscopic equipment

Picture 4. Laparoscopic equipment

Postoperative procedures
Any collected tissue or liquid sample during laparoscopic surgery will be sent for further pathohistological examination. Results of those analyses can be expected few days after the procedure.
Postoperative recovery after the laparoscopic surgery is much faster, safer and less stressful for your animal companion.
Duration of laparoscopic surgery
Depending on the complexity of procedure, laparoscopic surgery can last anywhere from half an hour to several hours.

Three portal laparoscopic cat sterilization performed by cutting both ductus deferens without testicle extraction:


Case report

Picture 5. Patient, seven months old cat named Lion

Picture 5. Patient, seven months old cat named Lion

Case description:
A seven month old half-breed cat named Lion (picture 1.) was presented to our clinic “IVAVET” for the sterilization. The patient’s caring owner wanted to know which surgical procedure would provide safer, less stressful and easier recovery to her loving animal companion. In addition, she wanted to know if there is any possibility to perform sterilization without removing testicales, thus Lion’s aesthetic appearance could stay undisrupted. Therefore, we thoroughly presented to her all possible solutions and recommended laparoscopicaly performed sterilization achieved by cutting both vas deferens without need to remove gonads.

Aim of this minimally invasive surgery is cutting the tubes (ductus deferens) that transport sperm from the testicles to the penis, without removing gonadal glands. By cutting these tubes permanently sterile animal retain hormonal balance due to kept ability to produce testosterone. Moreover, after this procedure there will be no need for any kind of special diet.

The patient’s owner accepted our advice so we obtained a signed permission form to perform laparoscopic sterilization, including permission to convert to an open procedure, should it be necessary.
Clinical finding
General physical examination and laboratory analysis indicated Lion’s good health condition confirming him as ideal candidate for laparoscopic intervention. Examination revealed a slightly elevated body weight (3.9 kg).

Patient and instrument preparation for laparoscopic surgery
Discarding our professional advice the owner fed her cat night before surgery. Consequently, cat vomited food, luckily for us before surgery took place. We prepared and sterilized all instruments (picture 2.), and put them on instrument table near operating.


Picture 6. Basic sterilized instruments

Picture 1. Basic sterilized instruments

Picture 7. Cat position during procedure

Picture 2 Cat position during procedure

Anesthesia was achieved with appropriate dose of the domitor/ketamidor combination. We use this combination during surgery because it provides a suitable anesthesia for cats characterized by rapid induction, good muscle relaxation, good analgesia and bradycardia. During anesthesia our nonsterile assistant monitor all patient vital functions, instruments and keep connecting cables outside of patient sterile zone.
Patient was restrained in dorsal recumbency on positioner that has been securely attached to the surgery table, and the surgical field was aseptically prepared in the standard manner for all abdominal operations (picture 3.).

Next to the umbilicus we made a small skin incision (1 cm), trough which we placed the Veress needle. While placing the Veress needle we were very vigilant in order to avoid damage to internal abdominal content (especially spleen or liver). After penetrating the abdomen we attached the insufflation line to the Veress needle (picture 4.), turned the carbon dioxide gas on and started insufflation to establish pneumoperitoneum.

Picture 8. The Veress needle

Picture 4. The Veress needle

After that, we removed the Veress needle and in the same port we placed primary trocar through which we inserted laparoscope with a video camera and light source. After initial exploration with laparoscopic camera we placed two more lateral secondary ports (picture 5). Through this ports secondary trocars were placed, lateral to the primary trocar and halfway between the umbilicus and pubis. We used these two secondary ports to insert required instruments and to make easier access to the vas deferens.

Picture 9. A. Three trocars are visible (one primary, two lateral secondary

Picture 5. A.

Picture 9. B. Primary trocar with inserted Laparoscope with video camera and light source.

Picture5 B

Picture 11. A. Removing of instruments, after successful intervention

Picture 6 Removing of instruments, after successful intervention

Picture 11. B. Small portals left after removal of laparoscopic equipment.)

Picure 6 Small portals left after removal of laparoscopic equipment.)

Laparoscopic procedure was observed on video monitor placed in the operating room so that all team members could supervise whole procedure.First, in inguinal area we located left ductus deferens, using laparoscope. Second, with grasping forceps we elevated previously located left ductus deferens (as much as it was possible, look at picture 8.), inserted through one of the secondary ports. Third, through other secondary port we inserted bipolar forceps with an electro generator and coagulated one small place on the left ductus deferens. Finally, after removing bipolar forceps we used same port to insert scissor forceps and transect left ductus deferens. We have done the same process on the right ductus deferens.

We thoroughly checked for any bleeding or tissue damage before removing all instruments (picture 6.). After intrabdominal administration of antibiotics, deflating abdomen and removing trocars we sutured all ports using 3-0 thread for cats, in standard manner.


Postsurgical treatment
Lion was released home within a few hours after surgery. He didn’t show any signs of pain or altered general condition. We prescribed a postoperative analgesic for three days and instructed owner to return in a week for recheck.

Picture 12. Secondary ports sutured. Primary still not, but will be also sutured).

Picture 7 Secondary ports sutured. Primary still not, but will be also sutured).

Picture 10. Ductus deferens elevated with grasping forceps (instrument on the left) and coagulated with bipolar forceps (instrument on the right) on the same place where it will

Picure 8 Ductus deferens elevated with grasping forceps (instrument on the left) and coagulated with bipolar forceps (instrument on the right) on the same place where it will

Laparoscopic vasectomy performed by cutting tubes is more challenging for a surgeon but for the patient is undeniable better due to faster recovery time, decreased stress and pain, improved visualization, undisrupted hormonal balance and last but not the least important unchanged aesthetic appearance of your animal companion.

TTA surgery for Cranial Cruciate ligament rupture

Vet Tommy



Belgrade, Serbia

Surgery specialist DVM Goran Tomišić



TTA surgery for Cranial Cruciate ligament rupture



TTA surgery for Cranial Cruciate ligament rupture

Medical history


TTA surgery for Cranial Cruciate ligament rupture


TTA surgery for Cranial Cruciate ligament rupture


TTA surgery for Cranial Cruciate ligament rupture


TTA surgery for Cranial Cruciate ligament rupture


TTA surgery for Cranial Cruciate ligament rupture


TTA surgery for Cranial Cruciate ligament rupture


TTA surgery for Cranial Cruciate ligament rupture

Dog , Golden Retriever 4 year old,  29 kg weight, was presented to the clinic with chronic pain and lameness in his left hind limb. Beside that the dog was perfectly healthy.  During the orthopedic examination in sedation, there are persistent sign of drawers  which is the most important sing of Cranial Cruciate  Rupture. On  X- ray  was no osteoarthritis founded. During the preparation for the surgery, measures of the knee were taken from the same  X-ray. Measuring for this procedure must be precise and it’s done with help of special equipment.



Surgical treatment


During the surgery dog was placed in left lateral position, and approach on the knee was from medial side. After exposing the tibial  bone markers were placed  into the tibial crista. Afterwards,  precise cut was performed with special saw to cut of the tibial crista, on that  site the titanium plate was placed with fork. Next step during the surgery is placing a cage into the space between tibial crista and other part of tibial bone  screwing  it with screws. When everything was stabile it was irrigated and closed.


Postoperative treatment

User comments

TTA surgery for Cranial Cruciate ligament rupture


The dog that we operated was necessary to be under restriction  as much as possible minimum two weeks. After only 24h dog was touching ground with operated leg, but he was on restricted walks for two weeks because of his temperament. There was no postoperative complications, one month later  dog was using his leg practically normal, but he was still under the supervision  of the owner.