Cerebrovascular accidents in dog

 

edf

Dr Svetoslav Penchev

United Veterinary Clinic

Varna,Bulgaria

 

 

Stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) is the most common clinical manifestation of cerebrovascular disease, and can be broadly divided into ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. CVA are characterized clinically by a per acute or acute onset of focal, asymmetrical and non-progressive brain dysfunction. Next cases show the both type of CVA in dogs.

1st case is about 9 years old female boxer. The dog was referring to the clinic with acute onset of seizures. The results of CBC and Biochemistry were normal and MRI was performed.

Image 11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Image 22

 

 

 

 

Image 33

 

 

 

 

Image 44

 

 

MRI findings: Intra-axial right piriform lobe and hippocampus lesion with impression of moderate swelling of these portions is present. The cerebral falx is only mildly displaced to the left. There is corresponding low T1 signal intensity in these sections of the brain suggesting edema. There is no enhancement of the lesion after contrast administration. The findings suggest that there is a non-hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident in right forebrain of the dog.

 

The 2nd case is about  a 8 years old male Cane corso. The dog was present in the clinic with unilateral fore brain deficits and history of epileptic seizures. Biochemistry and CBC were normal and MRI was performed.

 

Image 55

 

 

 

 

Image 66

 

 

 

 

Image 77

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Image 88

 

 

 

 

Image 99

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Image 1010

 

 

 

 

MRI findings : There is a well‐delineated T1 iso- to hypointense  and T2 hypointense  mass lesion with surrounding brain edema in right piriform lobe with a thin peripheral rim of contrast enhancement. There is a mass effect, displacement of the right lateral ventricle and midline shift to the left. This imaging feature is consistent with an acute to subacute intracranial hemorrhage.

 

Conclusion:

MRI features of Hemorrhagic infarction in dogs may not be distinguishable from hematoma caused by vascular disruption. Imaging characteristics will vary depending on the size, location, and chronicity ofthe hematoma.

Hyperacute – 24 hours   T1 isointense ; T2 hyperintense

Acute         1-3 days  T1 iso- to hypointense  ; T2 hyperintense

Early subacute   >3 days  T1 hyperintense  ; T2 hypointense

Late subacute    >7 days  T1 hyperintense ; T2 hyperintense

Chronic              > 14 days   T1 hypointense ; T2 hypointense

Secondary  features :  mass effect, surrounding edema, midline shift , ventricular displacement and compression .

 

MRI features of Nonhemorrhagic Infarction in dogs include mildly T1 hypointense and T2 hyperintense  lesion with minimal  mass effect involving both gray and white matter on unenhanced MR images. These changes seen in ischemic parenchyma rely on an increase in tissue water content. Gradually, during the acute stage, the T2-weighted image becomes more hyperintense in the ischemic region, particularly over the first 24 hours. These signal changes seen in the first 24-hours are best appreciated in grey matter and are well visualized in deep grey matter structures such as the thalamus or basal ganglia, in addition to cortical grey matter. Gadolinium enhances infarcts because of vascular rupture but does not enhance ischemia or edema.

 

Broncholithiasis in cats

edf

Dr Svetoslav Penchev

Unites Veterinary Clinic

Varna, Bulgaria

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 years old male, not castrated British shorthair cat with history of tetraparesis was referred to the clinic for Computed Tomography. Mineral-attenuating endobronchial lesions were detected in Thorax as accidental finings in spinal CT. The finding is specific for broncholitiasis.

CT  :

1

1

 

3

3

2

2

4

4

5

5

 

 

CT features: Multifocal mineral-attenuating endobronchial lesions in cranial and middle right and cranial left lung lobe are present. There is mild generalized thickening of the bronchial walls and consolidation of right middle lung lob with regional bronchiectasis

 

 

 

6

6

7

7

8

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9

9

10

10

11

11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

X-rays

23

1

24

2

 

 

 

X-ray features: Multiple mineral opacity nodules with irregular margins are present within left and right cranial and right middle lung lobe. The largest of which lies within the right middle lung lobe and interstitial patter in this region is present.

 

 

 

Broncholithiasis is very rare condition in cats and is defined as the presence of calcified or ossified material within the bronchial lumen. Only four cases of broncholithiasis in cats have been reported in the veterinary literature. Normal this condition is associated with lower airway inflammation, but in this case the owner does not report for respiratory problems. Broncholithiasis is an uncommon condition, which should be considered as a differential diagnosis for cats with chronic respiratory disease. Affected cats may develop broncholithiasis secondary to a diffuse inflammatory lower airway disease with mineralisation of secretions in the airways.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Meningocele and meningoencephalocele in a dog

edf

edf

Dr Svetoslav Penchev

United Veterinary Clinic

Varna, Bulgaria

 

8 mounts ,female dog with congenital meningocele and hydrocephalus . The dog is with normal behavior and without neurological deficits.1113

Meningocele and meningoencephalocele of the skull are congenital deformities. These deformities, which are observed as cyst-like swellings in the median part of the skull cap, occur very rarely. The intracranial material protrudes through a spontaneous cavity, such as the anterior fontanelle , and they are classified as encephalocele, meningocele, or meningoencephalocele according to the cranial bifida.111 1122

C2 FRACTURE AND CENTRAL CORD SYNDROME

edf

edf

Dr Svetoslav Penchev

United Veterinary Clinic 

Varna, Bulgaria

 

 

 

 

Case is about a 6 months , male  cocker spaniel named  Michael.Michael was brought in the clinic from another city in very bad candition.The owners report for a trauma in cervical region.Radiography and neurological examinations were made. Results revealed –Tetraplegie and atalnto-axial instability.It was made a CBCT on cervical region.The image show C2-Fracture .3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Michael C2 fr et CCS 9Michael C2 fr et CCS 5Michael C2 fr et CCS 6Michael C2 fr et CCS 4Michael C2 fr et CCS 2It was maked a surgary to stabilize  cervical spine. Ten days after surgery Michael starts moving the pelvic limbs first and tries to stand on them. Twenty one days after surgary Micheal start to moving and thoracic limb  , but  have ataxia and destroys proprioception on his  four leg. Michael`s  recovery begin first with the hind limbs and then with the thoracic limbs .In human literature, the symptom in which the thoracic limb is in a dysfunctional state with minimal to no deficit in the pelvic limbs has been referred to as CCS (Central Cord Syndrome ). The spinal cords that travel to the pelvic limbs are minimally affected because the lesion is centralized in the cervical region, which only affects the thoracic limbs. In general, CCS has a good prognosis for functional recovery and its common etiology is traumatic disease in human medicine. CCS treatments with nonsurgical management include cervical spine restriction with a neck collar, rehabilitation followed by physical therapy and occupational therapy. Surgical management is provided for patients who cannot be treated by conservative management alone.

 

Michael C2 fr et CCS 10Michael C2 fr et CCS 8Michael C2 fr et CCS 11Michael C2 fr et CCS 12Michael C2 fr et CCS 13