Tension pneumoperitoneum due to spontaneous gastric perforation in cat

MetodievStoyanovBorislav Metodiev, DVM       Yavor Stoyanov, DVM

Bomed Veternary Clinic, Sofia

Pneumoperitoneum refers to accumulation of gas within abdominal cavity, resulting from a perforated hollow viscus, penetrating wounds or bacterial peritonitis. Emergency condition of massive pneumoperitoneum compromise cardiorespiratory function, known as pneumoperitoneum, has been reported in humans. In veterinary medicine, there are also a few similar cases.

This study reports a case of a cat that developed tension pneumoperitoneum secondary to gastric perforation. The cat was treated with emergency abdominocentesis, followed by laparotomy.Pneumoperitoneum

A 10 years old British shorthair spayed female cat Tara (2.8 kg) was presented with a remarkable abdominal distention. Three months ago, the cat was operated because of suspected alimentary lymphoma. A part of small intestine and caecum was removed. Histology confirmed large cell lymphoma. Tara was started on chlorambucil and prednisolone protocol. Regular control examinations showed only decreased appetite and one or two times weekly vomiting. The last examination was two days before pneumoperitoneum, and ultrasonography was unremarkable.

At the time of admission, the cat was in good condition except respiratory distress, with huge ballooned, tympanic abdomen. Abdominal US showed only gas. Emergency needle abdominocentesis was performed, and about 300 ml air was aspirated. Than was performed X-ray. The abdominal radiograph showed distended by air abdominal wall, compressed viscus, displaced to thoracic cavity diaphragm. There was no evidence for free fluid in abdominal cavity. Subcutaneously was small amount of air, leaked after the needle aspiration. Second abdominocentesis was performed, and about 400 ml air was aspirated. The aspirated gas had no odor or admixtures.

On the next day, the cat was rehydrated, and a laparotomy was performed. Mild peritonitis was found with a small almond of yellowish ascites. The small intestines were empty, in the large intestines there were some faeces. The site of previously enter anastomosis was perfect. There was no evidence of leaking from the gut or any visible evidence of recurrence of lymphoma. A 6-8 mm perforation was found at the gastric fundus. The stomach, liver margin and omentum were mildly adhered. Other portions of stomach wall looked visually and palpably normal. After blunt dissection of the adhered liver and omentum, the gastric perforation was closed with interrupted sutures. Materials from stomach wall for cytology and from free fluid for microbiology were taken. Abdominal cavity was flushed with 0.9% warm saline and closed in a routine manner. Cytology did not show atypical cells, or any suspect for alimentary lymphoma. Microbiology was unremarkable.

Reported common causes for pneumoperitoneum in small animals include abdominal surgery, gastrointestinal perforation and bacterial peritonitis. In cats pneumoperitoneum also has been reported as complication after endoscopic biopsy or gastrostomy tube replacement. Most of these cases have not shown severe abdominal distention, necessitating emergency decompression.

The exact cause of gastric perforation in this cat is unknown. We suspect local weakness of gastric wall due to iatrogenic factors. Chlorambucil or prednisolone, or combination of these two medicaments may cause damage of mucosa and weakness in the walls of GI tract.

Necessity of therapeutic emergency abdominocentesis due to spontaneous pneumoperitoneum in cats has been emphasized only in few previous reports.

 

Endometrial Polyps in a cat

IMG_20190115_141517Dr. Yavor Stoyanov, DVM    

 

Bomed Veterinary Clinic, Sofia, Bulgaria      

yavkata.ys@gmail.com

Abstract: Endometrial polyps from a 10 –year-old cat are described.The cat was presented in clinic due to vaginal bleeding. Few polypoid cystic masses pedunculated into the uterus lumen were found at the surgery. Sonographic, X-ray, cytology and histopathological examination revealed uterine polyp consisting mainly of endometrial fibrous tissue stroma and glands without invasive growth or atypical mitotic activity. Keywords: Endometrial polyp cats, Feline uterine polyps, Cystic uterine polyps in cat,Ultrasound endometrial polyps, Histology endometrial polyps, X-ray endometrial polyps

 

Introduction

Endometrial polyps in cats are a rare disease condition. Much of the available evidence being anecdotal1. There are only three more detailed reports for this condition in cats.    One from the archives of the International Registry of reproductive Pathology at the University of Illinois, US -14  cats1, one from Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of veterinary medicine, Kirikkale university, Kirikkale, Turkey-1 cat2 and one from School of Veterinary medicine, Azabu University, Kanagava, Japan -1 cat3.

Case History                                                                                                                  

A 10-year-old Persian cat was presented to Bomed Veterinary Clinic in Sofia, with history of acute vaginal hemorrhagic discharge. The cat was in good physical condition with normal temperature and behavior. Few bloody drops around the vulva. In middle to caudal abdomen was palpated some firm mases.                                                                                                                                               

Under clinical differentials diagnoses of pyometra, uterine adenocarcinoma or alimentary lymphoma was performed abdominal ultrasound. Sonographic examination showed a few cavernous structures cranial to bladder and caudal to kidneys.  The large one was about 4 cm in diameter. Caverns were dispersed in haphazard mosaic pattern.  Doppler sonography showed good blood supply of masses. On the base of ultrasonography pyometra was excluded of differentials diagnoses list.

Fig.1 Sonographic view of uterine polyps Fig 1 US-1

On the base of suspected uterine adenocarcinoma were performed two dimensional chest and abdominal X-ray.  Lungs and chest X-ray did not show indication of metastases.   Abdominal X-ray confirms sonographic findings about dispositions and dimensions of mases.

Fig.2 X-Ray view of uterine polypsFig 2 X-Ray

CBC and biochemistry was in normal limits.    On the base of the clinic and tests an exploratory laparotomy under general anesthesia was performed. During surgery uterus with abnormal asymmetric horns was found. Few mobile firm – elastic mases were palpated in uterine lumen. Two and smaller in the right horn, and a bigger one in the left horn. Ovaries looked normal except one little cyst nearby to right ovary.

After OHE the uterus was dissected. Evidence for an inflammation was not found.

Fig 3 Morphology

We found in left horn one big elongated egg-like structure pending on short narrow peduncle. It is about 5 cm long and 4 cm in diameter. The smallest one in the right horn was about 1 cm long and 0.6 cm in diameter starting nearby end of horn. The middle one was about 4cm long 2cm in diameter and partially entering in the cervix. Polyps had firmly –elastic consistency, easily bleeding, with small delicate cyst on the surface. Uterus wall had irregular thickening mostly because endometrial hyperplasia. On the luminal surface has similar small delicate cyst also. When we dissected one of the polyps many different sized caverns dispersed in haphazard mosaic pattern were found. They were full with translucent slightly mucinous secret. The stroma was tenacious.

Fig. 3 Morfology of uterine polyps. Polyps pedunculated from uterinw endometrium to uterine lumen. Many fine cysts are visualiseted on the surface of polyps. Uterine walls with irregular hyperplastic patern.

Many prints slides for cytolgy were made. We did not found inflamatory cells, evidance for adenocarcima or any proof for other malignasy. These polyps looked benign.

Fig 4 Cytology-1

Fig.4 Cytology from uterine polyp. Left- stroma    Ridht- cyst wall

Specimen for hystopatology was prepeared in 10% formalin and send to Pathology laboratory, at the same day.

Fig.5 Histology from uterine polyp. Up- Stroma and cysts.     Down- Left -Hyperplastic proliferation of  glandular epitelial cysts.  Down-right- Atrophyc epitelial wall of large cyst.       

         

Histology report:   Protocol 107,108,109,110/05.04.2019

Hystological spesimen representing uterine wall with presence of polypoid tumor formations.   Tumor origin is from endometrial surface, representing of stroma,  built from mature fibroses tissue with glands structures in thinly pattern within. Many of these glands structures are cystic dilated. They are covered with one row cubic epithelium with primarily basal situated nuclei. No signs for epithelium proliferation activity, atypical mitotic activity or invasive proliferation regarding the stroma. An endometrium and myometrium has typical histological structure.

Histological diagnosis: Atrophic endometrial polypsOn the base of clinical examinations, Ultrasonography, X-ray, morphology, cytology and histology report our diagnosis is as follows: Endometrial PolypsDiscussion

 

A diagnosis endometrial polyp of this case is according to the nomenclature in the Histological Classification of Tumors of the Genital System of Domestic Animals4. Main differential diagnoses are between endometrial polyps and polypoid form of cystic endometrial hyperplasia. The more exact differences between true endometrial polyps and polypoid endometrial hyperplasia are defined as that endometrial polyp have a vascular connective tissue stalk5 or contain a substantial connective stroma in addition to glands, and are pedunculated6.  Histology slides demonstrated changes in the different stages of cysts development. Focal cystic endometrial hyperplasia is the stimulus for formation of polyps. As hyperplasia progresses, out of synchrony with surrounding endometrium, the glands become larger and more numerous.  If the cystic endometrial glands have no external opening, they start to accumulate fluid. When the fluid pressure in the cysts increases, the gland cells covering their walls are compressed and start atrophic process.1      On the base of reports no breed, age or other predispositions were found1.No evidence that endometrial polyps are preneoplastic changes of the feline uterus except one a 16-year-old cat with metastatic carcinoma and five endometrial polyps1, 2. This probably reflects the rarity of endometrial neoplasia in cats as compared to women1. On the base of this data prognosis in this concrete case is excellent.  ConclusionEndometrial polyps in cats are very rare condition.It is difficult to classify this disease as gynecological, hormonal or oncological. On the base of the case studies OHE is choice of treatment with excellent prognosis.

Fig 6 Dara

Fig. 6 The lucky cat Dara.Acknowledgments:

 

The author would like to thank to team of Bomed Veterinary Clinic, Sofia, Dr. B. Rangelov, DVM for sonographic diagnostics, Dr. M. Lulcheva, DVM for anesthesia and Dr. J. Stojkov DM for histology report.