Junior Assistant Clinicians (10 Posts),University of Glasgow

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University of Glasgow

College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences

School of Veterinary Medicine

 

Junior Assistant Clinicians (10 Posts)

Vacancy Ref:  067987

Salary: Grade, level 6, £29,614 – £33,309, per annum

 

We are looking to appoint a number of Junior Assistant Clinicians to deliver small animal veterinary clinical and care service under the supervision of experienced and fully qualified staff.  You will, on a rotating basis, participate and assist, under supervision in Referral Clinical activities, in the areas such as anaesthesia, emergency medicine, internal medicine, oncology, radiology, neurology, soft tissue surgery and orthopaedics as directed by the Hospital Board. You will also, on a rotating basis, participate, and have direct case responsibility, in a Primary Care Out of Hours service.  In all these activities, you will support student training and receive appropriate training yourself as required.

 

This 1-year position will count as an Internship for future residency applications and successful candidates will receive a certificate of completion of internship.  The posts offer the early stage clinical experience required as vets prepare for further specialist training, for example through residencies and masters formal training programmes.

 

We welcome applications from candidates with a degree that is registerable with the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons and practical clinical experience and training with companion animals (this may include undergraduate courses with a significant practical component and periods of extra-mural studies)

 

The School of Veterinary Medicine has an excellent international reputation in teaching, clinical services and research and is accredited by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS), the European Association of Establishments of Veterinary Education (EAEVE) and the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA).  Our purpose built hospital is one of the most sophisticated in Europe allowing companion animals from across the United Kingdom to benefit for the most advanced care available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week throughout the year from some of the best specialist vets in the world.

 

The School is located in the picturesque Garscube Estate, 10 minutes drive from the vibrant “West End” of Glasgow, and less than one hour from Loch Lomond. Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland and the third largest in the UK, and has recently been named the top cultural and creative centre in the UK in a European Commission report (https://composite-indicators.jrc.ec.europa.eu/cultural-creative-cities-monitor/).

 

The University of Glasgow has recently been named University of the Year at the Times Higher Education Awards 2020. The University offers a wide range of benefits and discounts https://www.gla.ac.uk/myglasgow/humanresources/new/newstart/workingatglasgow/
Visit our website for further information on The University of Glasgow’s School of Veterinary Medicine: https://www.gla.ac.uk/schools/vet/

Informal Enquiries should be directed to Professor Ian Ramsey, Ian.Ramsey@glasgow.ac.uk

 

Apply online at: https://my.corehr.com/pls/uogrecruit/erq_jobspec_version_4.jobspec?p_id=067987

 

The University of Glasgow is the current Times Higher Education (THE) University of the Year.

 

The School of Veterinary Medicine holds an Athena SWAN Silver departmental award. The award recognises commitment to tackling gender inequality in higher education.

 

It is the University of Glasgow’s mission to foster an inclusive climate, which ensures equality in our working, learning, research and teaching environment.

 

We strongly endorse the principles of Athena SWAN, including a supportive and flexible working environment, with commitment from all levels of the organisation in promoting gender equity.

 

The University of Glasgow, charity number SC004401.

 

Pemphigus foliaceus in a cat

   spasDr Spas Spasov

Veterinary Center Dr Antonov

Varna, Bulgaria

  1.Case History

The cat is 3 y old ,female non castrated ,regular vaccinated ,tick and flea treatment with advocate .

The problem of the cat begane one year ago in with claw bed problems ( yellow puss from there ) ,the cat have also lesions on its ears and nose .

In other clinic in other country my other vet is start with antibiotics and steroid therapy (improvement for few months )

    2.Clinical presentation

spas 1 spas 2 spas 3 spas 4

 

 

Paronychia, crusty  and scaly nose ,crusty and scaly ears, pruritus, painful walking no other skin lesions and symptoms .

   3.Differential diagnoses

Fungal infection

Pemphigus Foliaceus

Demodecosis

Pyodermia

Allergy

    4.Diagnostic approach

CBC and Biochemistry –Unremarkable

DTM – Negative

Skin scrape and scotch tape – Negative

Cytology – Neutrophils ,bacteria ( cocci ) and acantholytic  cells .

Microbiology ( Staff .aureus )spas 5

5.Therapeutic approach

14 days Amoxicillin and clavulanic acid and topical therapy with chlorexiderm 4 % ( almost no improvement)

New cytology – Normal neutrophils and acantholytic cells (no bacteria )

Punch biopsy of nail bed .

Pathohistologi report :

Report – Histopathology release date: 23.02.2021

Description

  • There were examined 5 representative sections (Hematoxylin-Eosin stain) from each sample, showing

similar histopathological appearance:

Epidermis with orthokeratotic hyperkeratosis, spongiosis and crusts (composed of acantholitic cells and

neutrophils). Superfcial and deep dermis show oedema, perivasculary to diffuse infammatory infltrate

with eosinophils, few mast cells, few lymphocytes and plasma cells. The hair follicles are in telogen and

catagen phases. The glands (apocrine and sebaceous glands) are well represented, without any

changes. There is no evidence of neoplasia, parasites or fungi in the examined sections.

  • There were examined 5 representative sections (PAS stain – fungi) from each sample, showing similar

histopathological appearance:

NEGATIVE

Interpretation

The histopathological appearance is consistent with hyperkeratosis, suppurative epidermitis, chronicactive dermatitis with eosinophilic component (allergic component).

Comments

The histopathological aspects are suggestive for pemphigus foliaceus. Suspicion is confirmed.

spas 6 spas 7

 

Therapy :

Prednisolon tablets 2 mg per kg twice a day  for 14 days then slowly reduce dose to a minimum working dosage .

6 moths later the cat was perfect then ,the owners call regular just to tell us that everything is ok .

Diagnose :

Pemphigus foliaceus

CORRECTIVE OSTEOTOMIES OF COMPLICATED BONE MALFORMATIONS, USING RIGID FIXATION WITH MIKROMED IMPLANTS

by the Department for orthopedic diagnostic, surgery and anesthesia in clinics “Dobro hrumvane” – dr. Kirilov, dr. D. Ivanov, dr. Ts. Ivanov, dr. Nikolov, dr. Kotsev, dr. Bochukova, technician Kirilova

logo 

Corrective osteotomies, especially the ones caused by combined and complicated malformations of the antebrachium and the crus are truly challenging surgeries, both for the surgeon, and the implants being used. Except by their design and material (steel/titanium), these implants differ also by their qualities such as elasticity, strength, long term quality of the locking mechanisms. The quality of the surgical titanium or steel, being used, along with their manufacturing technology are significantly important for the overall quality of the manufactured implants. Further below, in this abstract, we present 4 orthopedic cases, which required a maximally rigid fixation to be applied. Working on these cases, allowed us to challenge the strength and locking quality of the Mikromed implants.

Case 1: Male dog, Frodo, mixed breed, aprox. 35 kg

In its early age, the patient suffered a trauma to its elbow and antebrachium, creating a malunion, which in the long term lead to permanent elbow damage, radio-ulnar synostosis and high-grade external torsion and valgus of the distal antebrachium:

Pre-op antebrachial valgus:

Fig1FrodoPre-opValgus

Pre-op antebrachial external torsion:

Fig2Frodo Pre-opExternalTorsio

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frodo pre-op video:

A double plating corrective osteotomy was performed, using a 3.5 mm locking DCP Mikromed plate and 3.5 mm locking and non-locking screws (this system also accommodates 2.7 and 4.0 mm screws) and a second, straight, non-loking Mikromed DCP plate with cortical 2.7mm screws. In this kind of surgery, it is crucial to have very strong implants and locking and to do precise calculations for the corrective angles to be achieved. Precise contouring of the medially placed non-locking implant is also very important for the successful outcome.

Post-op X-ray CrCd:

Fig3Frodo5 MinPost-opCRCD

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Post-op X-ray LAT:

Fig4Frodo5MinPost-opLAT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frodo 18H post-op video:

https://youtu.be/8wVnvzzpb-E

Final result: perfect bone healing and normal leg usage

 

 

Case 2: Male dog, Michail, mixed breed, aprox. 13 kg

 

The patient suffers from congenital bilateral antebtachial deformity – high-grade internal torsion and varus.

 

Pre-op antebrachial varus right leg:

Fig5MihailPre-opVarus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pre-op antebrachial internal torsion right leg:

Fig6MihailPre-opInternalTorsion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pre-op antebrachial varus left leg:

 

Fig7Pre-opVarus

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pre-op antebrachial internal torsion left leg:

Fig8Pre-opInternalTorsio8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Video pre-op:

A single plate corrective osteotomy was performed (this was possible due to the low weight of the patient). A straight support 2.4 mm locking Mikromed plate was used, along with 2.7 mm locking and non-locking screws (the system also accommodates 2.4 mm screws). The plates was applied in an oblique fashion, instead of purely cranially, due to the need for excessive contouring, which is a serious challenge for the strength of the plate and the stability of the locking and the whole fixation in the post-op period.

X-ray picture 5 min post-op LAT:

Fig9 5minPost-opLAT

 

 

 

 

 

 

X-ray picture 5 min post-op CrCd:

Fig10 5MinPost-opCRCD

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Final result: perfect bone healing and normal leg usage

X-ray picture 6 months post-op LAT:

Fig 11 6MonthsPost-opLAT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Case 3: Male dog, Ares, GSD, aprox. 30 kg

The patient suffered a high-energy trauma to its stifle and curs in its early age, which stopped the development of the proximal portion of the tibial plateau, thus making it “sink” in relation to the tibial crest and leading to a shift of it surface in relation to the femoral condyles. Additionally a synostosis between tibia and fibula was found. The patient demonstrated intensifying lameness and more and more severe pain, especially upon limb extension. In addition, a low-grade lumbo-sacral instability was diagnosed during imaging.

 

Ares X-ray picture pre-op LAT:

Fig 12Pre-op LAT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ares X-ray piicture pre-op CrCd:

Fig 13Pre-op CRCD

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A block resection of the tibial plateau was performed, during which the plateau was elevated and leveled. Ilial bone autografts were used to fill the gap, formed between the two tibial fragments. A straight support locking Mikromed 3.5 mm DCP plate plus 4.0 locking screws were used. The correct and adequate leveling of the tibial plateau was crucial, along with strength of the plate and the reliable locking, which were subjected to serious biological forces. In addition to that, the patient had an energetic temper.

Ares X-ray picture 24H post-op LAT:

14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ares X-ray picture 24H post-op CrCd:

15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ares X-ray picture 6 months post-op LAT:

16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ares X-ray picture 6 months post-op CrCd:

2

Result: perfect healing and limb use, even years after completion of the surgery.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ares CT 2 y post-op:

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ares video 2 y post-op:

https://youtu.be/cDpzO229GcU

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Case 4: Male dog, Nuki, mixed breed,aprox 25 kg

 

The patient suffered from a rare congenital elbow deformation: the proximal radius and ulna exhibited “mirror view” morphology in the sagittal plane: the ulnar trochlear notch and its coronoid processes were placed at the opposite site. There was no weight baring on the limb due to this, which lead to maximal muscle atrophy. The carpal joint was in permanent flexion and extension was impossible to achieve. All soft tissues related to the elbow joint exhibited atypical morphology.

Nuky X-ray picture pre-op LAT:

Fig 19 NukyPre-OpLAT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nuky X-ray piicture pre-op CrCd:

Fig 20 NukyPre-OpCRCD

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the are moments of leg “usage” Nuky treaded in this way:

Fig 21 NukyPre-OP

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

An elbow arthrodesis along with a minor (around 25 mm) limb shortening was performed. An angle of 110-130 degrees between the humerus and antebrachium was impossible to be achieved, because of the altered soft tissue morphology and due to the risk of worsening the carpal situation. Due to that, a laterally applied curved non-locking DCP Mikromed plate was used, instead of the typical caudally applied straight plate.

Medial application of the plate is usually recommended, but in this case we decided to once again challenge and trust the Mikromed implant, being laterally applied.

 

Nuky video 3 days post-op:

 

Nuky video 1 W post-op:

https://youtu.be/alVKE2AJtF0

Nuky video 2 W post-op:

 

 

 

Result: full bone healing and good limb use. Home carried physiotherapy helped the particular patient overcome the permanent carpal flexion and evaluate shoulder muscles.

 

Nuky X-ray picture 6 months post-op LAT:

Fig22 6MPost-opLAT

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nuky X-ray picture 6 months post-op CrCd:

Fig 23 6MPost-opCRCD

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nuky video 10 months post-op:

 

Conclusion: The corrective osteotomies require precise pre-surgical planning, regarding both the osteotomy geometry and the choice of implants to be used. The Mikromed implants possess the required strength and locking quality to withstand even excessive orthopedic challenges, especially in the area of rigid fixation.

 

Vaginal tumor in a dog

Case history and clinical findings

 

mirela miroslavDr. Mirela Marinova DVM, EVSSAR member , MVC Bulgaria

Dr. Miroslav Genov DVM, PhD, EVSSAR member, MVC Bulgaria

 

A 14 kg, 13-year-old female cocker spaniel for truffle hunting was examined for a swelling in the perineal region. As informed by the owner the bitch had given birth once in the past and was in heat two months ago. The swelling appeared one year ago, but had enlarged aggressively the previous month. The dog had been facing difficulty defecating.pic 1 pic 2

Clinical examination revealed palpable little dense masses in the mammary glands. The swelling turned out to be a firm vaginal mass compressing the colon.

CBC and biochemistry profile showed no changes.  An ultrasound showed no accumulation of fluid, the ovaries were normal, the bitch was in anoestrus.

Owner was recommended surgical removal of the mass with episiotomy and castration.

 

The patient was prepared in advance for vaginectomy in case  removal of the mass with episiotomy was impossible.

 

Surgical procedure

Episiotomy was performed for examination of the masses. We started removing them consecutively with an electrosurgical knife. Their location was beneath the mucosa and were removed easily without loss of wall integrity. A part of the vaginal mucosa was hyperplastic so it was also removed. The urethra was unaffected. The vagina was sutured and it’s normal structure was restored.

The second part of the surgery was ovariohysterectomy. No changes in the ovaries and uterine were visualized.

After the castration, careful visual inspection of the uterine stump and the vagina led us to a big mass in the pelvic cavity that compressed the colon.  The abdominal cavity was opened caudally to pecten ossis pubis and the uterine stump was pulled cranially. The mass was localised at pars cervicalis. After it’s removal the vaginal wall was sutured.

pic 4 pic 5 pic 6 pic 7 pic 8

Post-operative period

The recovery was smooth.  Control of the urine bladder was kept and normal defecating restored.

The postoperative edema disappeared in 2 weeks.

 

Diagnosis

A part of the resected mass was send to laboratory for histopathological diagnosis resulting vaginal polyps- benign non-neoplastic proliferations of well differentiated fibrous tissue, covered by regularly structured hyperplastic epithelium.

 

 

Vaginal tumors

Tumors of the female reproductive tract are divided in two categories: arising from the ovaries and those derived from the tubular genitalia.

Genital tract tumours are usually seen in medium-aged (mean age 10 years) non-spayed dogs. Vulvar tumors in dogs are rare- 2,5% of all canine tumors with 70% of them being benign.

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SHCML_LI2pw

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dsg-ClVJPpY

Tumors of mesenchymal origin, leiomyomas, fibroleiomyomas and fibromas occur most commonly. Leiomyosarcomas, lipomas, mastocytomas, adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas occur much less frequently. Transmissible venereal tumors (that spreads during coitus)  can also appear  in dogs. Transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary tract occasionally extend into the vagina and vestibule. Metastasis to the vagina is extremely rare.

 

Smooth muscle tumors and polyps of the tubular part of the genital system are common in the bitch. The growth of many of these benign tumours is associated with the ovarian secretion of oestrogen. Therefore, unless the bitch is receiving exogenous oestrogens, it is very unusual to find them in an spayed animal. Leiomyomas appear to be steroid-hormone dependent-  around 56% of them have estrogen receptors and 84% express progesterone receptors.  This type of tumor is associated with estrogen secreting tumors or ovarian follicular cysts. Spontaneous regression has been observed after castration or treatment with progesterone receptor antagonist.

About 85% of leiomyomas occurring in the reproductive tract in the bitch arise from the vagina, vestibule and vulva. Boxers are predisposed.

 

Benign vaginal tumours may present as either extraluminal or intraluminal forms. Extraluminal are usually well encapsulated and their growth results in a noticeable perineal swelling. Intraluminal tumours tend to be attached to the wall of the vestibule or vagina. The are often ovoid and firm. Sometimes they can protrude from the vulva. Large intraluminal tumours may become traumatized, oedematous and infected and their appearance may be similar to that of vaginal hyperplasia. Sometimes  with the development of the tumour mammary gland tumours, ovarian cysts and cystic endometrial hyperplasia can be seen simultaneously.

Benign tumours can reach 10-12 cm in diameter. When it’s small the consistency is fleshy, but as it develops it becomes firm and hard  due to increase in connective tissue ( so called “fibroid”). Small vaginal masses are are asymptomatic unless protruded form the vulva and they can only be discovered by coincidence during vaginal inspection.

 

Clinical signs include bulging of the perineum, dysuria, stranguria, haematuria, vulvar bleeding and discharge, faecal tenesmus, constipation. Usually there are no changes in the CBC.  Radiographs of the caudal abdomen may suggest the presence of vaginal tumor but will not be enough for a definitive diagnosis or it’s location. Endoscopy is an excellent way to visualize the vaginal mucosa and the presence of polyps. Histological examination is considered to be the gold standard in determining the type of the tumor. Surgical resection with ovariohysterectomy ( reduces the risk ot recurrence) provide great outcomes for patients. Digital vaginal and rectal examinations are performed monthly to monitor for tumor recurrence.

 

 

References:

  • Jane M. Dobson and B. Duncan X. Lascelles, BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Oncology, Third Edition, 17: 257-259
  • David E. Noakes, Timothy J. Parkinson, Gary C.W. England, Arthur’s Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics, 9th Edition, 5: 649-651
  • Robert Klopfleisch, Veterinary oncology, 5: 141-143
  • Linda G. Shell, DVM, DACVIM, Tanya Gustafson DVM, Vaginal/Vulvar Neoplasia
  • B. Kand and D.L. Holmberg, Department of veterinary anesthesiology, radiology and surgery, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Univeristy of Saskatchewan, Case Report: Vaginal leiomyoma in dog
  • Tuli Dey, Bhajan Chandra Das, Syed Imran, Mohammed B. Bostami, Bibek C. Sutradhar, Sonnet Poddar, University ot Veterinary medicine, Bangladesh, Case report: Surgical Management of Canine Vaginal Leiomyoma of a bitch

Learn ans Travel-Iva Novak, final year veterinary student from the University of Zagreb, Croatia

Iva Novak, a final year veterinary student from the University of Zagreb, Croatia share with us her amazing experience:

iva novak 6After living one year in a pandemic, I decided to take one last chance at an Erasmus adventure before graduating this summer. When I came to Padova, I first took a couple of days to explore the beautiful Prato della Valle, Palazzo Bo and the historic center; and also find my way to the clinic. The San Marco veterinary clinic and laboratory is located outside of the city itself, halfway from Padova to Vincenza, another beautiful Italian city. The location makes it available to clients and owners from all over Italy, but also Spain, France, Switzerland and the Balkans. It stretches over 50,000 square meters and 2 floors, with a terrace that gives a wonderful view of the nearby fields.

iva novak 3

My first day I was greeted by Dr. Busato who gave me a tour of the clinic, which seemed like a spaceship to me, as I was impressed with magnetic name cards that opened the clinic’s doors! It was nice to put a face to the name of the person I had been messaging with to plan this whole visit, and as expected Dr. Busato was as nice and welcoming in person as she was over email. I am not the best Italian speaker but it turned out that there was no language barrier as everyone at the clinic spoke English and I had no trouble following cases.

iva novak 1 iva novak 4

To get me started, my first week I was put in the hospitalization ward; where each day one doctor is in charge, but the nurses are the true heart and engine, with over 100 cages, often full, and the nurses still know every patient’s quirks and details. The patients are divided into 6 rooms: for cats, dogs, dogs’ oncology, cats’ oncology, dogs’ infectious and cats’ infectious ward. The intensive care unit is separate and equipped with special beds for patients that can be moved to different areas of the clinic, specialized monitoring devices to provide optimal patient care and diagnostics, CPAP, continuous electrocardiographs, fresh gas and oxygen flow for each patient and round the clock care given by the amazing team lead by Dr. Rocchi. We gave hope and a fighting chance to every animal that walked through the clinic’s door and thanks to doctors Pelizzola, Grossi, Botto and Pallares I practiced my E-FAST skills, ultrasound volemic status assessment, wound management; and there was always good food at morning rounds.

iva novak 7 iva novak 8 iva novak 9

The scale of the clinic is so that if I were to write about each department, this article would turn into a book! San Marco is a tertiary clinic so it provides patients with general medicine and specialist care in neurology, cardiology, nephrology, dermatology, oncology, ophthalmology, orthopaedics, nutrition, and behavior science but one of the most important departments there is radiology. I learned just how big of a part echography can play in disease diagnostics and control check-ups and I also spent one week studying CT diagnostics, which was a whole new world for me. I was lent literature to prepare since CT diagnostics weren’t a part of my studies at the University of Zagreb, and with the help of Dr Negro I was quickly able to follow and recognize pathologies in multiplanar reformatted reconstruction and three-dimensional volume renderings.

 

As a referral clinic they take in over 6000 patients a year, so cases were abundant but I learned even more during the weekly evening lectures and clinical cases presented almost daily by the clinic’s rotating and specialist interns. The clinic is research oriented, they publish around 30  peer reviewed papers every year and they also provide professional training, traineeships, specialised and rotating internships and residency with evening lectures, seminars and congresses that I have all been attending.

 

My morning would start in the staff kitchen, where I got to master my coffee-making skills with the instructions given to me by the clinic’s interns, and during lunch, we would exchange pasta recipes. In cardiology, Dr Ledda taught me how to use spectral, flow, and tissue doppler and being one of the doctors that can perform interventional radiology he taught me the theoretical part of it as well. Out of internal medicine, I had the honour of working with Dr Furlanello, Dr Zoia, and Dr Pantaleo. We would receive their own patients, as well as consultations and referrals from other clinics all over Italy.

Since my time there was short compared to the number of procedures they perform at the clinic, out of ophthalmology I was able to only attend one electroretinography on a Tibetan mastiff with SARD syndrome. During surgery week, I observed a TTT with trochleoplasty, nodulectomy with a flap, extrahepatic portocaval shunt closing with fluoroscopic portography and a correction of tibial varus among other procedures. I also helped perform bronchoscopy, rhinoscopy, colonoscopy, gastroscopy with duodenoscopy, and uretroscopy. The endoscopy equipment was also used for intracervical artificial insemination, which was performed by a doctor Ferré.

 

In the end, one of the things you can’t miss when you first walk into the San Marco clinic is the big swimming pool that can be seen from the waiting room. It is used for physical therapy but I can’t say I didn’t see any of the staff jumps in just before it is supposed to be emptied. At physical therapy, they explained to me the history and progress of every patient and taught me how to use laser therapy in theory and practice along with applied hydrotherapy in the pool or the underwater treadmill.

 

Now, after 3 months, my adventure is coming to an end, I plan on visiting all the beautiful places in Veneto and surrounding regions I still haven’t seen, like Bologna, Verona and Milano.

I embarked on an Erasmus in the middle of the pandemic but I was lucky to be welcomed into an amazingly organized clinic, following the rules and measurements put in place, my Erasmus experience was barely affected by the pandemic. I am thrilled to have had this opportunity to meet amazing people who work in the same field as me. I can recommend San Marco Vet Clinic to colleagues that want either basic training or to further their skills with specialist grade education. Thank You to everyone who shared their knowledge with me. I will treasure it for a lifetime.

Canine juvenile cellulitis – a case misdiagnosed as meloxicam allergy

cvetanAuthors:

Tsvetan Velev1, Anna Valerieva2, Plamena Novakova2, Elitsa Valerieva3, Elena Petkova2, Tsvetelina Lazarova1, Maria Staevska2, Miroslav Todorov1

Affiliations:

1 Veterinary clinic “Blue Cross”, Pancharevo, Sofia, Bulgaria;  2 Department of Allergology, University Hospital “Alexandrovska”, Medical University of Sofia, Bulgaria; 3 Dr. Shterev Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria;

 

 

Abstract

Juvenile cellulitis (also known as juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis, juvenile pyoderma or puppy strangles) is a rare sterile granulomatous disorder that commonly affects the face, pinnae and submandibular lymph nodes of young puppies between 3 weeks and 8 months old. The condition often manifests with prodromal symptoms and concurrent medication / vaccination might be mistaken for culprit of hypersensitivity reactions.

Herein, we report a rare case of canine juvenile cellulitis misinterpreted as meloxicam allergy. Early diagnosis and proper treatment of the condition is associated with a very good prognosis. It is recommended that therapy should be aggressive and initiated as soon as diagnosis is made in order to avoid scarring, secondary infections and to maintain a favorable prognosis. Additional treatment includes topical medications (eg. antimycotics, antibiotics and steroids) along with antiseptic dressings. Awareness of this condition must be improved as the severity of juvenile cellulitis may lead to euthanasia, therefore it is of vital importance that the disease is considered and explored early, and proper treatment is initiated promptly

 

Key words: juvenile cellulitis, puppy strangles, canine drug allergy, misdiagnosis, autoimmune cellulitis, sterile granulomatous dermatitis, juvenile pyoderma

 

 

Introduction

Juvenile cellulitis (also known as juvenile sterile granulomatous dermatitis and lymphadenitis, juvenile pyoderma or puppy strangles) is a rare sterile granulomatous disorder that commonly affects the face, pinnae and submandibular lymph nodes of young puppies between 3 weeks and 8 months old (1). Clinical signs of juvenile cellulitis include fever, lymphadenopathy as well as bilaterally symmetric, pruritic lesions in the periocular areas, face, muzzle, pinnae and inguinal regions. Symptoms progress to crusting and alopecia. Lesions typically form fistulae that drain. A typical feature which also gave rise to the term “puppy strangles”, is submandibular lymphadenopathy. Apart from all these findings, affected dogs are usually active and in good general health (2,3).

Figure 1 (1)

Figure 1. Bilateral symmetric, pruritic granulomatous lesions of the muzzle and the periocular areas.

Case-presentation

A 14-week-old miniature Spitz-Pomeranian puppy (regularly vaccinated) spontaneously presented with left hind limb lameness and pain. A hypothesis of possible trauma resulted in intramuscular meloxicam application in two consecutive days with no clinical benefit. Dermatological symptoms occurred after 48 hours and were misinterpreted as meloxicam allergy: bilateral symmetric, pruritic lesions in the periocular areas, face, muzzle, pinnae and inguinal region. This lead to a prescription of antihistamine and low-dose corticosteroid treatment.

Thereafter, the puppy presented also with fever and mandibular lymphadenopathy. Dermatological symptoms progressed to crusting and alopecia, some pustules formed bloody abscesses and drained. Symptoms continued to worsen requiring to rule out various infectious diseases: canine distemper, leishmaniasis, anaplasmosis, babesiasis and toxoplasmosis, all of which resulted negative.

Blood tests were within reference ranges and non-conclusive of an infectious agent. Clinical presentation suggested a diagnosis of autoimmune juvenile cellulitis and high-dose systemic corticosteroid and antibiotic therapy was initiated with clear benefit in less than 12 hours: prednisolone 2 mg/kg + trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, together with ocal antiseptic care. Therapy was tapered in 35 days with no signs of a relapse. At the final check, the puppy is 17 months-old with normal development and in good general health.

Figure 2

Figure 2. Bloody abscess on the back (spontaneously drained within few days)

Discussion

The cause and pathogenesis of juvenile cellulitis are not yet fully understood. It was suggested that it is a systemic condition with primary lymphadenopathy resulting in secondary dermatological lesions with some extent of immune dysfunction as well as hereditary components (4). Inflammation in juvenile cellulites is pyogranulomatous with no culprit microorganisms. Cytological findings reveal a nonbacterial aetiology of the disease (5). Analysis of joint fluid often shows signs of sterile suppurative arthritis. Examination of aspirates of affected lymph nodes, pustules, abscesses and joint fluid rarely show any sign of bacterial growth. Biopsy of lesions usually demonstrate discrete or confluent granulomas and pyogranulomas consisting of clusters of large epithelioid macrophages with variably sized cores of neutrophils (6). It was also suggested that since juvenile cellulitis usually occurs at the age when dogs usually receive their first vaccinations with modified-live virus vaccines, there could be a possible pathogenic link between infection with vaccine or other viruses and the evolution of this disease. Data on this association is, however, insufficient. Definitive diagnosis is based on cytological and histopathological analysis as well as on typical findings on complete blood cell count (leucocytosis, neutrophilia, and normocytic-normochromic anaemia) (6).

Figure 3 (1)

Juvenile cellulitis is responsive to high-dose corticosteroids which are often prescribed along with antibiotics due to the risk of secondary bacterial infection (5). Rapid and aggressive therapy is recommended in order to maintain a favourable prognosis, to avoid scarring, and to reduce secondary infections (7). The major differential diagnosis includes: canine distemper, demodicosis, bacterial pyoderma, dermatophytosis or an adverse drug reaction, as in the case presented here. However, sterile pus on cytology and responsiveness to corticosteroid treatment differentiate infectious or drug-related causes from juvenile cellulitis. Since juvenile cellulitis is a relatively rare condition, it doesn’t usually come as the first diagnosis in mind and other more common conditions are considered (2). However, as the severity of juvenile cellulitis may lead to euthanasia, it is of vital importance that the disease is considered and explored early, and proper treatment is initiated (8). Juvenile cellulitis is very responsive to high-dose corticosteroids, usually prescribed along with (5). It is recommended that therapy should be aggressive and initiated as soon as diagnosis is made in order to avoid scarring, secondary infections and to maintain a favourable prognosis. Additional treatment includes topical therapy (e.g. terbinafine, oflaxacin, ornidazole and clobestal) along with antiseptic dressings (7).

fig 4 t

Figure 4. Dermatological changes of the penile skin.

Conclusion

We report a rare case of canine juvenile cellulitis misinterpreted as meloxicam allergy. If diagnosed early and treated properly the condition is associated with a very good prognosis. It is recommended that therapy should be aggressive and initiated as soon as diagnosis is made in order to avoid scarring, secondary infections and to maintain a favourable prognosis. Additional treatment includes topical medications (e.g. antimycotics, antibiotics and steroids) along with antiseptic dressings. Juvenile cellulitis has a very good prognosis if diagnosed early and treated properly. Complete recovery is typical with a low chance of recurrence (9). Dogs’ condition usually improves markedly by the 14th day after treatment start. Symptoms are reported to resolve completely within the fourth week (7).

Awareness of this condition must be improved as the severity of juvenile cellulitis may lead to euthanasia, therefore it is of vital importance that the disease is considered and explored early, and proper treatment is initiated promptly.

 

 

 

References:

  1. Kumar AA, Pillai UN, Aipe AA. Clinical management of juvenile cellulitis in a dachshund pup. Intas Polivet 2013; 14:234–235.
  2. Hutchings SM. Juvenile cellulitis in a puppy. Can Vet J 2003;44: 418–49.
  3. Scott DW, Miller WT, Griffin CE. Small Animal Dermatology, 6 ed. Toronto: WB Saunders, 2001:1163–1167.
  4. Dubey P, Sarkar S. Therapeutic management of juvenile cellulitis in Labrador pup. Intas Polivet. 2013; 14:232- 233.
  5. Bassett RJ, Burton GG, Robson DC. Juvenile cellulitis in an 8-month-old dog. Aust Vet J 2005; 83:85.
  6. Reimann KA, Evans MG, Chalifoux LV, et al. Clinicopathologic characterization of canine juvenile cellulitis. Vet Pathol 1989; 26:499–504
  7. Martens S. Juvenile cellulitis in a 7-week-old golden retriever dog. Can Vet J 2016;57: 202–203
  8. Mason IS, Jones J. Juvenile cellulitis in Gordon setters. Vet Rec 1989; 124:642.
  9. Jyothi J, Preethi K, Sathish K. Therapeutic management of juvenile cellulitis in a Labrador retriever puppy. The Pharma Innovation Journal 2017; 6(11): 840-842

 

HYPERPHOPSPHATEMIA: DIET AND PHOSPHATE BINDERS

pharmacrSerum and plasma phosphorus levels in blood mainly depends on intestinal uptake and urine excretion.

Kidneys have a key role in maintaining serum phosphorus levels, as they can either increase or reduce the quantity excreted with urines. In case of a dog or a cat fed with a high-phosphorus diet, kidneys promote its excretion and the opposite happens with a low-phosphate diet.

In cats and dogs affected by chronic kidney disease, also in the early stages, it’s difficult for the kidney to maintain the phosphate balance because as the kidney function declines, patients tend to phosphorus accumulation: this is called hyperphosphatemia.

In both dogs and cats with renal disease, hyperphosphatemia is mainly caused from a diminished phosphorus excretion (phosphates) and, to a lesser extent, it is consequence of a high acidity of blood (metabolic acidosis).

Hyperphosphatemia is often accompanied to hypocalcemia (low calcium levels in the blood serum), which leads to the increase of parathyroid hormon (PTH) as an attempt to correct calcium concentration in serum.

If hyperphosphatemia is not treated, PTH can be excessively secreted leading to renal secondary hyperparathyroidism, responsible for bone demineralization, renal interstitial and soft tissue mineralization.

Studies in dogs affected by chronic kidney disease have shown the efficacy of a low-phosphate diet (0.4% phosphorus on dry matter) in slowing the progression of renal damage and reducing calcium deposition in the kidney.

Patients in IRIS stage 2, 3 e 4 can show hyperphosphatemia that can be diagnosed testing phosphorus levels in blood and correlating results to the patient’s IRIS stage. In stage 2, dogs and cats are hyperphosphatemic with serum phosphorus above 4.6 mg/dL, in stage 3 with a phosporus level above 5 mg/dL and, finally, patients in stage 4 in case of phosphorus above 6,0 mg/dL.

First therapeutic approach in case of hyperphosphatemia of renal origin is administering a renal diet, with a low-phosphate level. It is recommended to check serum phosphorus after 2-4 weeks: diet is efficacious if serum phosphorus is below 4.6 mg/dL in IRIS stage 2, 5.0 mg/dL in stage 3 and below 6.0 mg/dL in stage 4. In case the diet alone is not working, it will be necessary to introduce phosphate binders.

IRIS stage Phosphorus(mg/dL) Therapy
1   No
  >4.6 Diet ± Binders
3 >5.0 Diet ± Binders
4 >6.0 Diet ± Binders

 

 

Phosphorus-binding agents should be given together with meals or within 2 hours of feeding to maximize their binding of dietary phosphorus. Commonly employed oral phosphorus binders include aluminum hydroxide, calcium carbonate, and calcium acetate. The starting dosage of these phosphorus binders is approximately 60-90 mg/kg/day, usually divided twice, and the dosage should be adjusted by periodic evaluation of the serum phosphorus concentration. Calcium salts may be superior to other intestinal phosphate binders if ionized calcium is moderately to severely decreased, which is common in the later stages of the chronic kidney disease. Animals should be monitored for development of hypercalcemia whenever phosphorus binders containing calcium are used, especially if calcitriol is being administered concurrently.

Pharmacross NormaPhos® PLUS contains calcium carbonate and chitosamine, with Vit.C and folic acid. As a phosphate binding agent, calcium carbonate is considered safe for long term use while chitosamine is a naturally occurring substance that enhances phosphate binding of calcium carbonate and binds uremic toxins, reducing their absorption in the bloodstream. Finally, Vit.C shows antioxidant properties and the adequate content of folic acid supports the red blood cell function.

 

Dietetic approach to Chronic Kidney Disease

kcmega3A correct dietetic approach is the key of the therapeutic management of either dogs and cats affected by CKD.

Renal diets have some characteristics:

  • controlled protein level, with proteins of high quality
  • low phosphorus & sodium
  • alkalizing agents to control metabolic acidosis often associated to CKD
  • high content of Vit.B complex
  • high content in fibers
  • polyunsatured Omega-3 fatty acids (PUFA) and antioxidants

It is wrong to consider a renal diet a “low protein diet” as there are still many diets with a lower content in proteins, addressed to other diseases, that are not good to be administered to patients affected by CKD.

Some renal diets underwent clinical trials in order to establish their efficacy in slowing the progression of renal damage or reducing the risk of mortality because of uremic crisis in patients affected from renal failure.

Protein content

There is no consensus about the ideal protein content of renal diets for dogs and cats, although it is accepted clinical signs of uremia improve after a renal diet is administered to patients in IRIS stage 3 & 4. For IRIS stage 1 patients there is no consensus about the utility of a renal diet, but it can be introduced to treat other conditions such as proteinuria. The theoretical utility of a low protein diet in slowing the progression of renal damage in IRIS 2 dogs has not been demonstrated yet and is, therefore, anecdotally applied based on studies carried out in other species.

Clinical trials of efficacy

The efficacy of a renal diet in reducing both uremic crisis and mortality of dogs in IRIS stage 3 has been demonstrated in a randomized controlled clinical trial (RCCT). Dogs feeding a renal diet reduced their risk to develop uremic crisis of 75% as well as of 66% for the risk of renal related mortality, compared to dogs fed with a maintenance diet. In the same study, dogs feeding a renal diet showed better quality of life too.

In another trial, cats with serum creatinine between  2.0 and 4.5 mg/dL were randomized into two groups, one feeding a renal diet and the other feeding a maintenance one; the renal diet reduced the risk of developing uremic crisis and death for renal causes.

Furthermore, a clinical trial studied the difference in survival times of cats feeding a renal diet compared to ones eating a maintenance one. Also in this case, there was a significant difference in survival time between the groups: a median of 633 days for cats fed with a renal diet and 264 for those eating a maintenance one.

Diet change

It takes its time to make a patient accept a new diet. Passing to a new diet too fast as well as a force-feeding are all reasons potentially leading a patient to food aversion. Changing a diet too fast can also cause diarrhea, subsequent dehydration and worsening of renal function. The new diet has to be introduced in growing percentage compared to the old one, subdividing the period in 4 phases. Cats, and dogs with selective appetite, will be changing their diet in 4 weeks, while easier patients will be doing it in 2 weeks.

1st period 25% renal diet + 75% current diet
2nd period 50% renal diet + 50% current diet
3rd period 75% renal diet + 25% current diet
4th period 100% renal diet

 

Therapeutic suggestions and evidence based medicine

Clinical trials demonstrated the efficacy of renal diet in both improving quality of life and survival time, other than reducing the risk of uremic crisis in dogs in IRIS stages 3&4 and cats in stages 2, 3&4. The real utility of a renal diet for dogs in IRIS stage 2 has not been demonstrated yet, although hyperphosphatemic patients may take advantage of a low phosphorus diet. Regardless the IRIS stage, the renal diet should be used in both proteinuric dogs and cats; its efficacy in reducing serum creatinine and urea is evaluated in 4 weeks.

Omega 3 fatty acids are widely used in both dogs and cats affected from chronic kidney disease (CKD). In dogs with proteinuric renal disease, clinical trials demonstrated the efficacy of Omega3 in reducing the protein loss and slowing the progression of renal disease and glomerular damage particularly if administered in association with antioxidants. In cats, no clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of Omega3 in slowing the progression of renal disease is available, although a retrospective study evaluating survival times of cats feeding different diets have showed a longer life-span in those cats eating the greater content of Omega3 fatty acids.

No data is available about the efficacy of Omega3 administered not in association to a renal diet. Both EPA and DHA are useful in course of CKD, even though diet should be supplemented with fish oils mainly represented from EPA and a fewer amount of DHA, at high concentration in EPA and low DHA.

On a side note, it has to be stressed Omega3 deriving from vegetal oils contain ALA, and are converted to a minimal part in EPA and DHA in canines, while cats are not able to convert ALA at all thus resulting in a lack of efficacy in case of CKD.

Content of EPA to be administered to renal patients is 80 mg/kg daily if associated to a renal diet. Pharmacross kcMEGA3, due to its high content of omega 3 fatty acids and the optimal EPA:DHA ratio meets the EPA content requirements for the health of the kidneys.

 

 

New ‘European Stream’ at 2021 Virtual VMG-SPVS Congress

vmgThursday 13-Friday 14 May 2021

 

Veterinary professionals around the world with an interest in business, leadership and management are invited to join this year’s VMG-SPVS Congress, which will provide inspiration and the latest insights and learning from speakers from the UK, North America and Europe. New this year is a stream of lectures specifically for European veterinary professionals and chaired by Torill Mosent, Vice Chair of the Federation of Veterinarians of Europe and President of the Norwegian Veterinary Association.

 

The largest non-clinical veterinary conference in Europe, VMG-SPVS Congress offers state-of-the-art learning and development in all aspects of veterinary business, including financial planning, business strategy, HR and people management, marketing and sustainability.  Speakers this year include:

28/11/2019 A link in the chain: Tackling mental health, poverty and loneliness through pet ownership All Rights Reserved - Helen Yates- T: +44 (0)7790805960 Local copyright law applies to all print & online usage. Fees charged will comply with standard space rates and usage for that country, region or state.

28/11/2019
A link in the chain: Tackling mental health, poverty and loneliness through pet ownership
All Rights Reserved – Helen Yates- T: +44 (0)7790805960
Local copyright law applies to all print & online usage. Fees charged will comply with standard space rates and usage for that country, region or state.

  • US coach Katherine Eitel Belt, who will explore how the development of ‘courageous’, unscripted conversations with clients, colleagues and audiences can achieve extraordinary results.
  • Canadian social worker, Professor Angie Arora who will discuss ‘Veterinary social work – a new paradigm’. Angie was principal investigator in a research study to develop guidelines for veterinary teams to better support clients through their pets’ end of life.
  • David Giraldi, Managing Director of Vet Partners, Italy, who will discuss ‘Practice Consolidation: What Europe can learn from a mature veterinary market’.

 

All live sessions will feature a speaker Q&A and the opportunity to participate in polls. The virtual congress platform also offers delegates the opportunity to engage with other attendees and to browse the large online exhibition.

 

The full programme is available here with all lectures available to delegates for three months following congress so they can watch them at a convenient time.

 

Commenting, VMG President Rich Casey, said: “As VMG-SPVS Congress is virtual this year, it offers a fantastic opportunity for delegates to join us from Europe – or indeed – around the world, for two days of exciting, affordable and highly engaging learning.”

 

Anna Judson, SPVS President, said: “We are particularly excited to host our new ‘European stream’, this year.  The profession on the continent faces some specific challenges and we have brought together experts from across Europe to discuss them and offer potential strategies and solutions.”

 

Group tickets start at just GBP100 for access to the whole event – with discounts available for single ticket purchase for those who are VMG or SPVS members.

 

Click here to register.

General remarks on Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

ph cross 1                  Treatment of CKD aims at:

  • Improving both clinical condition and quality of life
  • Prolonging survival time
  • Slowing the progression of renal disease

Once chronic kidney disease has been diagnosed, it is recommended:

  1. Stop any drugs with certain or potential nephrotoxicity;
  2. Identify and treat any concurrent disease influencing renal function and determining renal damage. In some patients, other pathologic conditions (such as endocrinopathies) can make difficult either staging renal disease and setting an adequate therapy;
  3. Investigate all causes leading to renal damage and, if possible, treat it. Sometimes, a renal biopsy can be useful to evaluate histologic lesions; in case of proteinuria, results of renal biopsy can provide a specific diagnosis and therapy;
  4. To apply a conservative approach of clinical conditions associated to kidney failure such as metabolic, acid-base and electrolytic imbalances. Therapy is addressed to correct hydration and mineral disorders, acid-base alterations and nutritional impairments. Patients benefit from symptomatic treatment improving their quality of life although azotemia is not significantly modified as this is undoubtedly just one of the factors contributing to the clinical picture of renal patients.

As general recommendations, clinically stable dogs and cats affected from CKD should undergo a clinical examination and laboratory evaluations based on their IRIS stage (www.iris-kidney.com)

  • every 12 months in IRIS stage 1
  • every 6 months in IRIS stage 2
  • every 4 months in IRIS stage 3
  • every 6-8 weeks in IRIS stage 4

Clinical Evaluation– Other than general and particular clinical examination, a special attention goes to the nutritional condition of the patient, determined by body weight, Body Condition and Muscle Condition Score (available both for dogs and cats at WSAVA). Nutritional status of patients affected by CKD is related to risk of developing uremic crisis and mortality: bad nutritional condition is associated to higher risk of uremic crisis and mortality for renal related causes. Blood pressure is determined too and hypertensive patients are put under treatment.

Laboratory exams– Once CKD has been diagnosed, Veterinarian proceeds to request the laboratory exams useful to identify concurrent pathologies known to determine renal damage or the progression of kidney disease. After the initial evaluation of a complete blood count, biochemistry and urinalysis (included UPC) the Veterinarian will be requesting further exams based on patient’s laboratory results and clinical history such as exams for infectious disease, endocrinopathies, ect.

Below are IRIS stages and most common disorders by stage (modified from Polzin, 2006 and 2019)

 

Clinical signs IRIS stage
Polyuria/Polydipsia 1-4
Proteinuria 1-4
Hypertension 1-4*
Urinary infection 1-4
Hyperphosphatemia 2-4
Hypopotassemia 3-4
Anemia 3-4
Metabolic Acidosis 3-4
Anorexia and weight loss 3-4
Vomit 3-4
Dehydration 3-4

*although it is possible to identify hypertensive patients in any stage of the disease, the prevalence of hypertension increases with increasing of IRIS staging